Gwlad y Calbain (Calraeg)
|Motto: Cyfiawnder a Chryfder|
"Justice and Strength"
|15.0.5 - current|
|Official language(s)||Calraeg (national language)|
Istvanistani (lingua franca)
|Official religion(s)||Calbain Catologian Church|
|• Prince of the Calbain||Jack II|
|• Governor-General||Evyn Drakeford|
|• Grand Master of the Calbain Catologian Church||His Eminence Huw Macklemore|
|National animal||Black Dragon|
Calbion (Calraeg: Gwlad y Calbain) is a sovereign island nation in the Central Sea. The nation occupies the Eastern part of the Jasonian islands (Ynysoedd Jasonaidd). In the past, the nation also had several colonies in Keltia. Calbion is a Monarchy, although it can be described as a 'Crowned Republic' because of the limited role of the Prince of the Calbain, who serves a largely symbolic and unifying function. The current Prince of the Calbain is Jack II, who spent the majority of his reign in exile, but returned following the independence of 1685.
The Calbain nation is one of the oldest civilisations on Micras, although often subjugated to political repression. In the year 1596, Calbion first gained an official status as an autonomous part of the Southbatavian empire. Following the Southbatavian transition towards the authoritarian empire of Jingdao, the Calbain autonomy was once again surpressed, which resulted in a short but bloody Revolt that saw the Calbain population decimated. Subsequently, Calbion was incoporated into the Brettish Commonwealth. Under the leadership of Llywelyn Lewis, the Governor-General of Calbion under Brettish rule, the identity of the Calbain people remained alive and the Calbain communities were restored. In recent history, Calbion was an autonomous province of Arcadia after the conquest of the islands by the Batavian Vinandy dynasty. The Vinandy's usurped Calbain titles, which created resentment and saw the politics of Calbion become divided into the "Realist" and the "Nationalist" fractions. Several historians pose that these internal division was one of the factors that lead to the collapse of Arcadia. Following the fall of Arcadia, a nationalist movement under the leadership of Evyn Drakeford, established Calbion as an independent nation again.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Calendar
- 3 History
- 4 Geography and Nature
- 5 Government
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
The name Calbion is an Istvanistanism derived from the name of the Calbain people. The Calbain themselves refer to the land as Gwlad y Calbain, the land of the Calbain. It is certain that there already existed a people indicated as Calbain, or Calbi, in Aerlig. The origins of the name for the Calbain people is unclear, but etymologists have suggested that the old Calraeg root calb- means "bald" or "barren", and refers to the plains that cover most of central Calbion. The name Calbion was first given to the island by Istvani seafarers, who settled in what is now the Port Edward region.
Calbion uses the Calbain calendar, which has been synchronised to the Norton calendar. A year (blwyddyn) is divided into 15 months. The Calbain calendar differs from the original Norton calendar, in that it starts to count from the arrival of Jack Mounford (Jack I) and the establishment of Calbion as a sovereign political entity in the year 1596. Years before this moment are referred to with Cyn Dyfodiad (CD), years after this moment are Ôl Dyfodiad (ÔD).
For a systematic overview, see: Timeline of Calbion
The earliest mentions of Calbain tribe in what now is Calbion comes from around 400 CD. The first mention of the word Calbain comes from Matbaic sources who speak of the tribe of the Calbi. Based upon archeological findings and oral history, it is most likely that the Calbain arrived on the island during the period in which the island was occupied by Aerlig. Linguists and historians have found Aerligan influences in Calraeg and early historical documents.
During the Matbaic period, Calbain kept to themselves, as appears to be the general strategy of the tribes. The Calbain were divided into three general groups, also known as the "hidden realms". These realms derived from important families and clans who often ruled the tribe in an autocratic fashion.
The three hidden realms were Dewlad, Morwlad and Penwlad. Dewlad, the "realm of the south" was ruled by the Arthur dynasty and was the nation most connected with the ruling classes. This proved to be both an advantage and a disadvantage. During the Matbaic period, Dewlad became occupied by Matbaic settlers who erradicated the Calbain culture. Due to intermarriage and the minority position of the Calbain, Dewlad lost to be an important Calbain region.
Morwlad, the "realm of the sea" wasn't as much as a centralised nation but rather a federation of cities founded by Calbain seafarers. The Morwyr, or seafarers, founded settlements in northern Calbion but also on Faenor and Nelaga island, as well as in southern Tapfer and Cibola.
Penwlad, the "headland", was the most important ancient Calbain nation and is regarded as the predecessor of Calbion. It is the only Calbain realm to survive the Matbaic era and as such, the culture of Penwlad has been the foundation for the Calbain culture as it is today. The capital of Penwlad was Pentyre, which still is the capital of Calbion. The realm was governed by the Llywelyn dynasty.
It was this society that the Maraguans met when they took over control of the island. The Maraguans, under the Maraguo Vrystaat and as part of Nelaga, had the desire to return to the culture of mythic land of Jasonia. To reach this goal, the Maraguans committed large-scale ethnic genocide on both Matbaians and Calbain.
The Calbain lived in close-knit communities during this period, waiting for a better time. The north of Calbion was briefly occupied by Interland, remnants of Interlandian culture are still visible in, especially, St. Edward
The Nelaga territories, set up as a political compromise following the Redoubt war, succumbed to internal problems aided by massive natural disasters. These disasters, including earthquakes and floodings, were referred to as "the islands coming down" in historical texts. This description is a reference to the belief that the islands were once "flying" during the mythical Jasonian ages. As a result of these disasters, famines had decimated the population, especially on Calbion island. Nelaga finally fell in 1596.
During the same time, in South Batavia it was a time of unrest. The country was in a period of transition from a former Batavian territory towards a new empire with a distinct culture. Juan, an army general, had tried to remove the Emperor from power. The economic and political situation was dire. During this period, Jack de Montfort became the leader of a Catologian order. In this position, he emerged as the voice of some Batavian settlers who felt uneasy by the dictatorial tendencies of the South Batavian government. In the early weeks of 1596, de Montfort, together with some followers, sailed to unknown lands with a small fleet that also carried South Batavian refugees.
The island they landed was Calbion. Jack de Montfort stumbled upon a divided nation. The south of the island had a small presence of Maraguan forces, who wished to reinstate a Nelagan government. The North of the country, as well as the central plains around Pentyre, were occupied by the Calbain, who saw this time of instability as their chance for political self-determination. De Montfort also made an alliance with the Interlandian governor of Saint Edward, which became the first city to transfer to South Batavian control. A prestige project for the South Batavian nation, for which de Montfort nominally claimed the islands, a squadron of South Batavian forces was detached to the island in order to unite it. De Montfort quickly entered into an alliance with the Calbain tribes, openly declaring his support for their independence struggle and styling himself Count of Calbion to honour those people. The Nelagans in the South briefly attempted an insurrection against the new government, but were defeated in a short skirmish.
Subsequently, Jack de Montfort was invested as Prince of the Calbain, the largely ceremonial title for the heads of the Calbain people which had been vacant for some time. De Montfort identified strongly with the Calbain tradition, and under his rule, Calbain culture flourished. Several incidents occured however which created a schism between Calbion and the South Batavian government. The first incident was the establishment of a rocket launching site. The Emperor wanted to build a rocketbase on the isle of Faenor, but the local residents objected strongly to these plans. Mounford was unable to prevent the building of this site and had to settle for an aircraft base which also included the rocket facility.
The second incident was the raid of a Natopian trading ship and of a Natopian holiday facility for homosexuals by the Calbain pirate Callaghan. The cruelty which the pirate displayed towards his victims led to a diplomatic crisis between Calbion and Natopia. This was only enlargened by the crash of a Natopian airplane on the Central Square in Pentyre immediately after.
No longer wishing to submit to the rule of the despotic Empress Sisera, The Calbain rose up in a rebellion against the South Batavians, now known as Jingdao. Jack de Montfort formally declared independence, and ordered the arrest of the Jingdaoese ambassador and several military officers. Empress Sisera reacted by attacking Calbion using weapons of mass destruction. By doing so, she ended up destroying the major cities in the country. The civilian death toll was significant. In the years that followed, some Maraguans attempted to reinstate their government, which was briefly successful in the South. Meanwhile, the Calbain regrouped and rebuilt most of the country. However, the lesson of the failed war of independence taught the Calbain that they needed to form alliances with other states in order to survive.
Brettish Protectorate and Independence
In 1608, Calbion became a protectorate of the Commonwealth of the Brettish Isles. The Protectorate era was seen as a period of stability, in which Calbion recovered and returned to being a prosperous nation. Governor-General Llywelyn Lewis, who was appointed in 1610, ruled Calbion in close association with the Brettish Government.
After some time, nationalist sentiments arose in Calbion. As the country became more and more developed, the Calbain population refused to adhere to Brettish rule and to, what was percieved to be, the everclosing Brettish dominance over the nation. The first direct elections for the Assembly resulted in a win for Governor-General Lewis, who ran on a nationalist platform demanding full autonomy. Following protests, the leaders of Calbion and the Lord Protector of the Brettish Isles arranged a settlement that lead to Calbain independence. Governor-General Lewis became head of state as well as government until the Investiture of Jack II. The period of independence saw political development and the transition of Calbion towards a more or less democratic nation. The custom of national assembly evolved to include an elected parliament.
For twenty-five years, Calbion prospered as an independent country until it was dragged into the struggle for power on Micras. Siding with the Jingdaoese, Calbion opposed the Alexandrian occupation of Penguin Island, which has a significant Calbain population. In these circumstances, Calbion became increasingly dominated by the Jingdaoese, who established direct rule on Calbion in 1651, causing the Calbain government and the Prince to go in exile on the Skerry islands, were they set up an alternative government. After the Jingdaoese gave up their direct rule in 1662, Calbion became an autonomous province of Arcadia. King Gustavus des Vinandy was intrigued with the ancient customs and cultures of the Calbain, even though he was not very well informed about them. In a made-up ceremony, he claimed the title of Prince of the Calbain, which gained him significant notoriety among the Calbain population. His claim was widely renounced, and many Calbain continued to display the portrait of Prince Jack II in their homes. However, a faction of Realists led by Mackenzie Ó Gallchobhai decided that it was in the best interests of the Calbain to work together with the Arcadian leadership. Calbion had relative autonomy and freedom, and the situation had greatly improved from the Jingdaoese direct rule. Even though they acknowledged this, the nationalists still refused to cooperate with the Arcadian government and continued their government in exile.
In 1684, Arcadia collapsed as a result of a foreign policy disaster and internal division. The Calbain declared independence immediately after, and the government-in-exile finally returned. A nationalist government was formed under the leadership of Evyn Drakeford, and Jack II, who had been living in exile on the Skerries as well, returned as Prince of the Calbain.
Geography and Nature
Calbion is an island nation with a diverse geography. The island of Calbion is mountainous and forested in the north, while in the south and the west, green valleys and lowlands dominate the landscape. Famous are the Plains of Pentyre, which are low meadows in the shade of the Arán mountains that have been the location of many crucial events in Calbain history. The Northern coast, most notably around the city of Saint Edward, has a very pleasant and warm sea climate, which makes it a particularly popular holiday destination.
Although the climate of Armoria is also warm and temperate, the island itself is mostly barren and rocky. the island is located on a sea rift, which regularly causes earthquakes in the North of the island. In addition, the North of Armoria is a location of landfall for tropical storms and cycloons. The large majority of the Armorians live in the south, as the Southern coast is largely protected from natural turmoil by the Faenor mountains. The Northern part of Armoria is, in addition to being a designated nature area, the location of several military bases and facilities.
Kilkelly has a pleasant and mild climate. Its eastern borders are mountainous and sparsely populated, but the large remainder of the talaith is characterised by green downs and plains. In the central East is the mountain range known as the Ishara mountains. It is here that we find the largest peak in all of Calbion, the Albrús, which reaches up to 3,400 meters above sea level.
Prince of the Calbain
The Prince of the Calbain (Tywysog Calbain) was the head of state of Calbion and de facto head of government. The powers of the Prince of the Calbain have varied over time. During the time of the Hidden Realms and most certainly during the tribal era, the Prince of the Calbain ruled as an absolute monarch. The elected Princes during the Second Era often were regarded as primus inter pares among the high Lords of the land. Often, there has been no Prince of the Calbain at all, or only a weak person who held the title only as a symbolic feature, resembling the unity of the Calbain people. Current Prince of the Calbain is Jack II, who was invested in 1630 but spent most of his reign in exile on the skerries.
The Governor-General (Llywodraethwr-Cyffredinol) was the official head of the High Council, the appointed government of Calbion. The Governor-General has usually been a strong position in Calbion. Sometimes the Governor-General served as primary advisor to the Prince of the Calbain, but often, the Governor-General ruled the country in name of the Prince.
The Cynulliad Cenedlaethol or the National Assembly is the historical legislating body of the Calbain people and was the legislative body of Calbion. Although it functioned as a parliament, the Cynulliad Cenedlaethol took the form of a triannual gathering of local representatives. The Assembly consisted of two tiers, first the High Council, which was the main governing body of the Calbain, and had both executive and legislative powers, and second the Assembly, which developed into the lower house. Procedings in the National Assembly were rooted in (often shadowy) tradition and history of the Calbain people.
The High Council (Gyngor Uchel) was the governmening council of Calbion. The council did not have a set number of members but generally has a membership of around ten. The members of this council were appointed by the Assembly.
The Assembly was the place of gathering for the 'peasants' or the ordinary people. Originally, all male heads of the Calbain families attended the National Assembly. During the establishment of the Calbain state, this slowly transformed into an indirect parliament and political factions formed. The most notable of these parties was the Plaid Calbinol, which has been the main proponent of internationally recognised independence for the Calbain nation. It governed Calbion during its time of independence, and carried the nationalist political movement during the period of Arcadian occupation. Other, smaller factions have formed as well but have largely disappeared. The small Plaid Wleidyddol Catologiadd, a party that sought to implement the principles of the Calbain religion was propped up by the Arcadian occupation government as the established government party of Calbion. As such, they, together with some liberal forces, formed the "Realist" strain in Calbain politics.
Calbion is an unitary state, but due to its expansion towards several islands, it is informally divided into three provinces, known as Talaith. The largest province in terms of population and influence is that of Calbion island. Because this island is the core of the Calbain land, and also houses the government, it does not have any local government. With the expansion of the Calbain nation, the west of the island of Thalassa was occupied and became known as the Kilkelly province, after its largest port city and capital. To the North, the island of Armoria was also brought under Calbain rule. This island was often indicated as Y Faenor, or "the mansion". This referred to the gubernatorial palace that was constructed in the late 16th century. The island is also known as Summerisle, due to its proximity to the equator and its subtropical climate.
In addition to these three core provinces, Calbion also used to have a colonial dominion, which was known as the Ffederasiwn Tiriogaethol or "Territorial Federation" of Morwlad (literally: sea land). Morwlad consisted of several colonies with limited autonomy that were mainly used as trading hubs or extraction colonies. At its highpoint, Calbion occupied the colonies of Port Impregnable, Port Moorland, Y Dwyrain and Ynys Corrach. Traces of Calbain influence can still be seen in most of these places, most notably in the Agra Fortress that was constructed in Y Dwyrain and is still one of the largest castles on Micras.
As of 1685, Calbion is divided in the traditional three Talaith, each of which are subdivided into Ardals.
Calbion was a member of the Micras Treaty Organisation. The country has informal relations with Avalon, Natopia and Sangun. Calbion was a founding member of the Blackrock Pact, where it has strong relations with the Commonwealth of the Brettish Isles and Jingdao. As a consequence, Calbion became involved in the Euran War.
The defense of Calbion was generally in the hands of the Order, a military organisation that evolved out of the Catologian Order headed by Jack Mounford. The Order is under command of the King as commander in chief. The Order serves as de facto armed forces of Calbion.
Besides the Order, Calbion had a navy and an air force. The Arwyr Airforce base on Y Faenor was the largest military base on Calbion.
Calbion was a nation of trade.
The largest ethnic group in Calbion are the Calbain, being almost 80% of the population. Calbion has significant Maraguan and Batavian minorities, respectively 10 and 8 percent.
The Calbain Catologian Church (Calraeg: Eglwys Catologiadd Calbinol) is by far the largest religion in Calbion. It was established by Southbatavian settlers and became the state religion of Calbion in 1 ÔD. The Calbain Catologian Faith is characterised by a strong emphasis on morality, and the extent to which it has become syncretised with local religious lore.
From the early days of the Calbain nation, polytheistic religions were common, unified in the old Calbain faith, featuring numerous gods. With the arival of Jack de Mounford on Calbion, Catologism spread rapidly. De Mounford himself was Grand Master of a Catologian order, known for a particular brand of fundamentalist Catologism which was the foundation for Calbain Catologism. Part of the reason for the rapid acceptance of the Catologian faith was that it accepted local religion as part of the broad Catologian faith. The Calbain had the idea of one god that had many avatars, or personalities, and this was incorporated into the Catologism of the Calbain nation. This one god became synonymous with Cato, and the old gods continued to have a role as Cato's avatars. Because of the position of Calbion, Calbain Catologism differs enourmously from classical Catologism and even more from Jingdaoese Catologism.
Calbion is a land of pubs, and has a culture of live performance and singing. Traditional folk music is widely popular all over Calbion, and one doesn't have to look far to find someone with a guitar or lute who knows a song or two. Many Calbain folk songs have never been written down, but are transferred from father to son. In addition to folk singing, Calbain has a tradition of choirs. Choral singing is a very important aspect of the Calbain religion, and is widely practiced. Most schools have their own choirs.
In recent years, popular music has been introduced to Calbion. A specific branch of rock music, based in Calbion's folk tradition, has emerged and is known as Calpop. The most prominent exponent of Calpop is the band Ronnie Rona and the Aerosols who are credited with introducing Calbion to modern music. The group is the most popular band in the nation.
The two most popular sports in Calbion are Rugby and Football. Calbion's national teams are respected all across Micras. Calbion is known as the founding nation of the Micras Rugby Union.
Football in Calbion is controlled by the Calbion Football Association (Calbion Cymdeithas Bêl-droed). Calbion has one professional football league, the Gynghrair Gyntaf and a national team that participates in major international competitions.