Haifan Civil War
The Haifan Civil War began in 38.90 PSSC (1668 AN) in the immediate aftermath of the dissolution of Caputia, following the occupation and annexation of parts of Haifa by the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union. The Haifan Civil War occurred in two distinct phases. In the first phase of the war, the New Zimian War League fought against and ultimately defeated Morovian Nationalist military forces to acquire control over all major cities in the Haifan Peninsula. In the second phase, the War League struggled to contain the expansion of an uprising led by Jezeri forces in the Abeisan Archipelago, and in the peninsula's rural areas.
|Haifan Civil War|
A single warship sits waiting in the swamps of Lake Morovia
|Keltian League||Greater Morovian Independence Initiative||Alperkin|
|Normarkian Civilian Militia||Anti-Noctic League||Odiferae|
|Jingdao||Haifan Anti-Bassarid Collective|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Akamäp del hed Apulaji|
Bassarid Infiltration and Caputian Response
The high level of tension which existed between Bassarids and non-Bassarids (or anti-Bassarids) in Keltia prior to the outbreak of the Haifan Civil War can be partially explained by the long history of unapologetic Bassarid political and religious interference in Hammish/Caputian affairs. This interference, which began in the early 35th era and which gradually increased in scope and intensity despite international criticism, contributed directly to the outbreak of the Hammish Civil War, to the rise of Haifan nationalism, and to the eventual complete collapse of the government of Caputia.
Religious Intolerance in Caputia
In response to constant, ongoing efforts to infiltrate and disrupt political and social life in the nation, the government of Hamland began in the early 36th era to adopt and impose laws aimed at restricting and ultimately eliminating the practice of the Stripping Path within the nation's borders, and across Keltia. The implementation of these policies served to seriously radicalize practitioners of the expanding Bassarid religion. This radicalization came to the forefront of world attention during the War of Lost Brothers, when Bassarid "commercial cults" engaged in extensive acts of terrorism against SANE-backed forces in the northern Strait of Haifa.
Haifan and Morovian Nationalism
Although it was originally a secular movement aimed removing Hammish/Caputian control from the region surrounding Lake Morovia, the Haifan nationalist movement was subsumed in the period following the War of Lost Brothers by Bassarid religious zealots who had been radicalized as a result of anti-Bassarid policies imposed by the Hammish government. This subsummation of the ideals of Haifan nationalism by Bassarid zealots would result in a rift within the nationalist movement. Those who rejected the influence of the Bassarid religion, to this end, would shift their focus from the principles of Haifan nationalism, which sought Haifan independence from Caputia, to Morovian nationalism, which sought independence from all foreign influence. The development of Morovian nationalism would contribute to the formation of the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative, which was first formally established when the pirates associated with the Lake Morovia Blockade Fund defected from the Port of Jogi to the Independent Port of Lake Morovia. This defection would lay the groundwork for widespread conflict during the Haifan Civil War.
|35.70 PSSC (6534 ASC)||National Salvation Front and the Emergence of Haifan Nationalism.||The government of Hamland privately expresses concern regarding Pallisican influence over the National Salvation Front, which increasingly serves as a hotbed for Haifan nationalist sentiment. Of particular concern to the Caputian government is the relationship between Haifan nationalism and the rapidly expanding Stripping Path.|
|36.45 PSSC (6710 ASC)||Opposition to the Stripping Path in Haifa||The Caputian government publicly condemns the actions of the Order of Rochefort after the anti-Bassarid organization pursues religious cleansing in Haifa. Nevertheless, the Caputian government continues to implement anti-Bassarid policies, which seek to restrict the practice of the religion to certain parts of the former Free State of Haifa, namely Tel Amin and Lewisburg.|
|36.74 PSSC (6724 ASC)||Denial of Citizenship to Bassarid Immigrants||Queen Elizabeth I decrees that Caputia will deny citizenship to any foreign immigrant who espouses views which correspond to the beliefs of the Stripping Path. The announcement creates a sense of uncertainty among domestic practitioners of the Stripping Path, who now begin to quietly support the prospect of Haifan independence.|
|37.08 PSSC (6786 ASC)||Expulsion of Bassaridian Practitioners||The government of Caputia announces that it will attempt to forcefully expel all practitioners of the Bassarid religion from its borders, and declares all Pallisican, or Bassarid contributions to Caputian culture Damnatio Memoriae. The move sparks outrage across the Strait of Haifa and Lake Morovia, and serves to fuel a significant escalation and increase in Haifan nationalist sentiment.|
|37.41 PSSC (6847 ASC)||The Judah Speech||Tensions between practitioners and non-practitioners of the Bassarid religion in Haifa reach an all-time high after Royston Merrick - in his infamous speech entitled the Judah Speech - characterizes the Stripping Path as a religion of terror and subversion. Merrick's speech lays the groundwork for the formation of the partnerships and alliances which will soon drive the Haifan Civil War.|
|38.25 PSSC (7000 ASC )||Haifan Independence Referendums||The government of Caputia rejects the outcome of a referendum in which Haifans vote in favor of independence, citing low voter turn-out and national security concerns. Riots break out in Haifa when in 38.60, the Caputian government recognizes the outcome of a second independence referendum in which Haifans apparently reject independence in favor of a continued union with Caputia. These riots escalate into skirmishes and eventually battles as the government of Caputia, facing a lack of internal stability, fails to respond appropriately to demonstrations.|
|38.90 PSSC (7120 ASC )||Collapse of Caputian Government and Bassarid Intervention||The New Zimian War League intervenes in Haifa following the collapse of the Caputian government, in an effort to preserve and restore stability in the region surrounding Lake Morovia. The entry of Bassarid forces into the region results in an immediate, significant escalation in violence in parts of the country, as protestors and rebels resort to more extreme measures in their efforts to oppose Bassarid control. In the city of Lewisburg, anti-Bassarid authorities conduct an expansive series of "witch trials" in which practitioners of the Stripping Path are sentenced to brutal and bizarre punishments. Simultaneous to the outbreak of these witch trials, the city of Tel-Amin is sacked and effectively destroyed by paramilitary forces representing the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative. These two events mark the formal beginning of the Haifan Civil War.|
The Keltian League is the military force which represents the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union in Keltia. The Keltian League intervened in the Haifan Civil War at the outset of the conflict on the basis of a two part campaign, which sought first of all to mitigate the outbreak and expansion of violent chaos in the region following the dissolution of the government of Caputia, and second to restore and protect the practice of the Bassarid religion in mainland Haifa, where practitioners of the religion have long faced extreme persecution.
Allies and Partners
Normarkian Civilian Militia
The Normarkian Civilian Militia is de-centralized military force that is sponsored by the Regional Investor of the semi-autonomous Bassarid Kingdom of New Normark. The Civilian Militia entered the Haifan Civil War as an ally of the Bassarids, as a result of its commitment to defending the Normarkian city-state of Vaeringheim.
The closest and most important ally of the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union, Jingdao entered the Haifan Civil War in 39.04 PSSC after a period of deliberation. Though its overall role in the conflict was relatively limited, Jingdao played a central part in the Battle of Tel-Amin, and to a lesser extent in the campaign which ultimately brought to an end the uprising in Jezeraah.
Greater Morovian Independence Initiative
Established in 36.75 PSSC as an offshoot of the Israati-Haifan Nationalist Movement, the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative is a political organization which seeks the radical and violent overthrow of all foreign authorities in the region surrounding Lake Morovia. The Independence Initiative is the leading supporter of the anti-Bassarid paramilitary organizations which in 38.90, took up arms against the Keltian League following the annexation of Abeis by the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union.
Allies and Partners
The Anti-Noctic League is an order of battle hardened mercenaries who operate in the region of Lake Morovia on behalf of investors in the Independent Port of Lake Morovia. Since 38.12 PSSC the Anti-Noctic League has occupied most of the region known as Independent Alperkin.
Haifan Anti-Bassarid Collective
The Haifan Anti-Bassarid Collective is a loose confederation of radical anti-Bassarid, pro-Caputian, and pro-Melusinian paramilitary organizations who in 38.90 took up arms in revolt against the Bassarid occupation and annexation of the Haifan capitol city.
The Abeisan Archipelago, also known as Jezeraah, long a holdout of anti-Bassarid sentiment, openly revolted against the occupying Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union and declared the Republic of Jezeraah. The Republic considered itself the true successor to the Free State of Haifa and further considered the administration in Abeis to be a puppet government to the Haifo-Pallisicans. Owing to their long-standing, close relationship with the pirates who constitute the Lake Morovia Blockade Fund, the Republic of Jezeraah entered the conflict in Haifa as a close, important ally of the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative.
In 39.02 PSSC the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative explicitly rejected an offer of support from the government of Hoenn, citing concerns that Hoennese involvement would de-rail its objective goals, and the goals of its allies. The Independence Initative also expressed doubt that Hoenn possessed the capacity to provide meaningful support, given the circumstances surrounding the Bassarid blockade which strangled the nation's home island in the Captive Sea. The rejection of Hoenn's offer caused outrage in that nation, which struggled against its sudden Bassarid enemy.
The Alperkin is a confederation of nomadic religious fanatics who practice a bizarre belief system which is heavily based on the extensive consumption of the drug known as Noctic-Rabrev. While it is the case that the Baratar - the official military force of the Alperkin - played a relatively minor role in fighting during the Haifan Civil War, the people of Alperkin notably seized on the opportunity presented by the conflict, using it as a pretext for expanding their religion, and the drug trade which supported it.
Allies and Partners
The Odiferae is a confederacy of Alperkin tribes which rejects the legitimacy of the Alpazkigz government. In 38.90 PSSC the Odiferae entered into a de facto alliance with its longtime rival, in opposition to the foreign military forces engaged in the Haifan Civil War.
Progress of Conflict
Strait of Haifa Theater
Surrender of Abeis
The Bassarid annexation of Haifa was facilitated by the decision of Caputian government officials in Abeis who, recognizing that without the support of the government in Zalae they would be unable to defend their city from the chaos which now threatened the nation, chose to cede without contest the Haifan capital to the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union. This decision played a central role in the decision by political leaders in Keybir-Aviv and Minab Azis to also cede their own authority to Bassarid control. Owing to the compliance of local authorities, the Keltian league, which represented the Bassarids, was able to quickly establish its presence in the region, even despite a minor uprising in the heart of the capital city. Operating out of Abeis and its neighbor cities, the Keltian League was able to effectively launch operations which aimed to establish control in the cities of Lewisburg and Tel-Amin, where anti-Bassarid radicals seized authority from the existing pro-Bassarid governments.
Abeisan Archipelago Blockade
The Abeisan Archipelago Blockade was the first formal military operation carried out by the Keltian League during the Haifan Civil War. This blockade sought to restrict the flow of goods and services to and from the waters of Lake Morovia, where the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative had secured a considerable presence. The establishment of the blockade resulted in the outbreak of the Uprising in Jezeraah.
Uprising in Jezeraah
In response to the imposition of the Abeisan Archipelago blockade by the New Zimian War League, the inhabitants of Jezeraah rose up in revolt against Bassarid occupying forces. This revolt in Jezeraah served to significantly hamper efforts by the War League to prevent the flow of goods and services to the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative.
The small Jezeri navy has been effective in using guerrilla tactics to stymie War League efforts to establish complete control over the islands. Further south, skirmishes between Jezeri and New Zimian forces have been small and on unclaimed ground (the green), mostly west of the Maccabi Dam. The dam and surrounding territory is claimed by the Republic but has not gained international recognition yet.
Jezeran forces launched their first major campaign to the north, surprising Imperial forces who had expected them to push south. Instead, the Jezeri army launched a blitz offensive against New Monoviaville, a former Haifo-Caputian city that lay to the northeast of Jezeraah. Undefended except for local tribes the city was a relatively easy target and provided Jezeraah with a major mainland base out of immediate range of attack from the Imperial Trade Union. The main obstacle which confronted Jezeri forces came not in the form of military opposition, but in the fact that the assault unexpectedly coincided with the annual southern migration of ghosts from the northern Strait, which were followed by the insatiable harpies which preyed upon them. The migration of these frightful, violent spirits, served to slow the offensive somewhat, as many Jezeri forces found themselves possessed and driven mad, or captured and eaten by the region's harpies. New Monoviaville's Ocian and Monovian residents, with this said, were already generally opposed to the Bassarids. Thus casualties were kept to a relative minimum and the local regime was allowed to retain autonomy within the Republic. With the city secured Jezeraah was able to establish a major mainland port that could resupply the islands regularly, severely frustrating Imperial plans to retake the islands.
The expansion of Jezeraah into New Monoviaville led War League leaders to re-evaluate their strategy in regard to the Jezeri uprising. Whereas the War League had planned to immediately confront Jezeraah following the conclusion of the operation which sought to establish control of Tel-Amin, the War League now adopted a more reserved approach in its effort to confront the rebels. In conjunction with this shift in War League policy, the Bassarid Congress of Regional Investors also formally authorized the implementation of a series of plans which were aimed at establishing political and business connections with dissident agents in Jezeraah occupied territory. The implementation of these plans resulted immediately in the establishment of several new Bassarid commercial cults along the central Strait of Haifa. Such cults included The Nightly Chefs and the Murder of the Lizard King, among others.
The Jezeran Liberation Organization is an independent paramilitary group that acts independently of the Republican government. Originally formed as a political party, the JLO started training its own operatives as the guerrilla war spread from Jezeraah to neighboring mainland communities. Their attacks have been concentrated in Abeis and against various Imperial military installations. The JLO is widespread and includes dissidents from numerous ethnic groups, not just Jezerans, operating in numerous cities along the Strait of Haifa. The JLO tends to be more hardline than the Republican government and identifies the Bassarids and their ilk as foreign invaders with the objective of extirpating them from Keltia. Despite this, they hold a strong moral code and do not attack civilians. The JLO carries out attacks against any Imperial military elements, especially targeting their military infrastructure.
In response to a surge in Jezeri support for the JLO Underground, Bassarid Regional Investors agreed to provide financial support for the Jogi-based JLO Infiltration Initiative. This initiative offered significant financial and social incentives to informants within the JLO Underground who were willing and able to share accurate information regarding planned attacks, and regarding the identities and whereabouts of organization leadership. The efforts of the JLO Infiltration Initiative were relatively successful in helping to prevent most - but not all - attacks in Abeis and surrounding cities. With this said, the rise of the Jezeran Liberation Organization placed increased pressure on the War League to quell the Jezeri uprising. The War League for its part proved mostly resistant to this pressure. One War League official, when asked why the military was not doing more to drive the rebels out, was quoted as saying that "we believe the Jezeri present our nation with a curious set of opportunities which we should not ignore. There are strategic advantages to allowing them to exist, for now."
In 39.16 PSSC (March 21) several thousand Normarkian residents of New Monoviaville rose up in violent protest against the Jezeri occupying forces, over concerns regarding the severance of political and economic ties between the city-state and Vaeringheim. These protestors demanded that in return for their support for the Jezeri government, they should be allowed to retain important connections to their friends, families, and business partners operating in the Bassarid city opposite the Strait of Haifa. Without this guarantee, protestors insisted that they - with the support of the Normarkian Civilian Militia - would completely oppose the Jezeri occupation of New Monoviaville.
Operation Laylatayn (Two Nights) was the largest coordinated assault made by Jezeraah to date. Taking advantage of having a beach-head already established around the western terminus of the Maccabi Dam, the Jezeran military utilized blitz techniques to fan out and overtake the unoccupied region of Haifa between Abeis and Keybir-Aviv. Utilizing a combination of ground and air assault, the Jezerans faced minimal opposition as they moved inland. The region being largely rural aided the military in that they met with little resistance until approaching the borders of the HPI territories north and south. Avoiding any direct confrontation, ground forces remained a good distance away from Haifo-Pallisican positions and instead opted to secure and fortify defensible positions further inland. By the time Imperial forces began to respond the core of the Haifan Peninsula was already secured by Jezeraah. As the Jezeran military approached the corridor along the eastern shores of Lake Morovia, between Abeis and Keybir-Aviv, resistance became more fierce. The Jezeran Air Force launched a series of ground strikes against Haifo-Pallisican targets entering the unoccupied zone, avoiding any flyovers of Imperial territory, knowing that ground-to-air defenses would likely inflict high casualties. Within two nights Jezeraah had occupied the heart of the Haifan Peninsula.
One week after the onset of Operation Laylatayn, the New Zimian War League responded to the blitz with an offensive of its own, in an effort which sought first of all to drive Jezeri forces from the positions which they had established along the corridor connecting Abeis to Keybir-Aviv, and secondly to push Jezeri forces away from the Haifan capital city of Abeis. To accomplish the first of its two goals, the War League launched a joint offensive against the city of Zaitoon and the surrounding region, simultaneously deploying the bulk of its forces from Abeis and Keybir-Aviv. Assaulted by a significant contingent of forces advancing from the north and south, Jezeri forces struggled to adequately coordinate their defensive responses, and were quickly overrun after a brief period of very intense fighting. In order to prevent the arrival of reinforcements from the eastern regions now under Jezeri control, the War League deployed significant air forces to conduct extensive raids along the eastern border of the Zaitoon region, which were supported by the mobilization of the remaining portion of the Lake Morovia Army Group which was not involved in the direct assault against Zaitoon and the surrounding country-side. To prevent the arrival of naval reinforcements from the west, the War League deployed its naval assets in a blockade of the Zaitoon region, which served to prohibit the movement of forces or supplies to and from the region. Ultimately, the Bassarid mission to drive Jezeri forces from the eastern shores of Lake Morovia was successful - within a matter of days Jezeri forces - facing assaults from the north and south, and unable to receive reinforcements from the east or west - abandoned their positions and attempted to retreat eastward. A considerable portion of retreating forces was captured by the War League as they attempted to retreat. These Jezeri prisoners of war were transferred to detention camps near the city of Tel-Amin. Unfortunately for the War League, efforts to drive Jezeri forces away from the city of Abeis were much less successful than were efforts aimed at re-acquiring control of the corridor connecting Keybir-Aviv to Abeis. To this end, the War League failed to correctly assess the size and strength of the Jezeri forces which had established positions near the capital city, and therefore did not deploy a quantity of forces sufficient to achieve a decisive victory. Rivalries between War League commanders on this front, furthermore, significantly hindered operational organization and detracted from unit morale. The decision to rely for this mission on forces representing the Abeisan Archipelago Blockade, furthermore, proved to be a mistake by the War League, insofar as the re-allocation of forces away from the the Abeisan islands allowed the Jezeri government to expand and consolidate its control over the islands.
Following Operation Laylatayn, Jezeran and War League forces bogged down in the highlands surrounding the small city of Ghaaba and known as the Ghaaba Heights. Jezeri forces hunkered down taking the high ground, inflicting heavy casualties on War League forces who were trying to advance uphill. In turn, however, the Jezeran forces also took heavy loses when the War League launched aerial strikes against the upper hills. Jezeraah had hastily brought in some anti-aircraft artillery which began to inflict loses on War League fighters, who then pulled back on their aerial strikes, hoping that the assault had been enough to give ground forces time to advance further uphill. Unfortunately it hadn't, and War League forces only advanced about half the distance they needed to. The resulting fight between ground forces inflicted severe casualties on both sides, with neither side advancing or retreating. After twenty hours of heavy fighting both sides removed to more secure posts and entrenched themselves in defensive positions. The severe casualties, on both sides, made the Battle of Ghaaba Heights the bloodiest to date in the civil war.
Domestically the battle had far-reaching political ramifications for both sides and served to soften the stance of hardline war hawks. Civilian groups, shocked by such wanton bloodshed, began rallying to pressure governments to seek a diplomatic solution. Despite this, the fight for Haifa was far from over.
Eastern Coastal Theatre
Jezeraah's 4th Army made the largest territorial advances in Operation Laylatayn. After moving out from Asqalan the 4th met little resistance as it moved south through unclaimed territory that had already been settled by Jezerans. The first target was the coastal city of Marjeyoun, which is a small Jezeri fishing village that had established itself along the strait, built mostly around traders and their families. Already populated by Jezerans the advancing army met little to no resistance and troops secured the city without bloodshed. Non-Jezeran traders within the city were temporarily detained until hostilities could cease so that information could not be passed to the War League. With a garrison left in place the 4th then advanced south to Bir al-Zahra. This, too, was a small village that had been settled by Jezeran traders. Known for its cut-flower industry the village offered little resistance to the 4th Army and the city was taken with only two casualties. After establishing another garrison in the Bir al-Zahra the 4th was able to sweep the region and establish Jezeran control over the eastern quadrant of Haifa. With the 3rd Army establishing a defensive position in the Ghaaba Heights the 4th moved to establish a defensive perimeter in the southeast, anticipating retaliatory strikes from Minab-Azis.
Although it had initially planned to respond to the expansion of fighting into Bir al-Zahra, the War League was unable to organize a large scale counter offensive against the city. This failure by the War League was a result of several key factors, most notable of which was a significant purge of junior commanding officers stationed in Minab-Azis, which occurred in the aftermath of an outbreak of Noctic Vampirism. Despite the best efforts of the War League to conceal this outbreak from public knowledge, a leak of information revealed that many of these junior officers contracted the peculiar disease following an unauthorized visit to a plantation operated by an affiliate of the Ale of the Night Central Brewery. It is believed that during this unauthorized visit to the plantation, the junior officers in question ingested - possibly without their knowledge - a considerable quantity food illegally prepared with a Noctic-Rabrev leaf seasoning, which caused them to rapidly develop the symptoms of Stage II Noctic Vampirism, including anemia, euphoria, and blood lust. The officers who contracted the disease were relieved of their duties, and were detained by military police. Despite the best efforts of War League officials to minimize the fallout of this outbreak and the detention of afflicted junior officers, the incident resulted in a deterioration in the morale of forces stationed in Minab-Azis, which in turn hindered the ability of the War League to launch its assault against Jezeri positions around Bir al-Zahra. The information regarding the outbreak which was leaked, furthermore, served to further turn public sentiment against the conflict. Within days of initial reports of the outbreak, public demands for peace reached an all-time high, and War League commanders were forced to consider options regarding a negotiated peace.
The Battle for Abeis
Following Jezeraah's declared claim on Abeis, the Jezeran 1st Army began a strong offensive north on the Haifan capital. Despite losing the city of Zaitoon and retreating to Qalbaya, the 2nd and 3rd Armies were able to hunker down and force a stalemate with War League forces. This allowed Jezeran forces to access resources in the east and reinforce the 1st Army with fresh recruits. Further, with War League forces cut off from active engagement around the Macabi Dam, the government was able to move significant munitions across from the island to the mainland. This included a significant amount of mechanized combat vehicles and artillery. With its ranks bolstered the 1st Army began a difficult but steady push north along the Haifan coast, straight towards the outskirts of Abeis. Utilizing mechanized assault vehicles the Jezeran army encircled and cut-off War League ground forces, repeatedly isolating individual groups and forcing them to surrender. Even with War League forces pummeling Jezeri defenses in the west, they could not break through the wall to reinforce Abeis in time. Within a matter of days the 1st Army was at the gates of Abeis. Shortly after the new artillery was brought in and began pounding at the walls of the city.
The city of Abeis is a melting pot of mixed ethnicities and cultures; Jezeri being among the most significant of them. As a result of the offensive the Jezeri population and those who oppose the War League began rioting, impeding military units trying to defend the city and creating havoc in and around military installations. At one point a gas tanker was stolen and driven through the air base barrier fence, its contents spilled across the runway and the gas lit aflame. The resulting blaze not only prevented fighters from taking off, it melted the tarmac, making the runway useless. Similar sabotage was attempted at other installations with mixed results. Whether this was the work of rogue rioters or JLO operatives remains unclear; but the result nonetheless caused severe disorder among units rushing to defend the city.
The combination of rioting and an outside assault caused the eastern wall of the city to collapse within hours. Shortly after the 1st Army entered the city. Once within the confines of the urban environment the offensive became a firefight in close quarters as soldiers battled it out in the streets. Casualties began to rack up on both sides, but Jezeri forces pushed on, eventually occupying the entire eastern half of the city before being halted. The occupation of Abeis (or at least part of it) was hailed as a major victory for Jezeraah. Yet even with this victory, the mounting tally of casualties caused significant dismay at home, giving even greater voice to those pushing for peace.
Northern Lake Morovia Theater
The Noctic Economy Commission
The Noctic Economy Commission was an operation carried out by the Keltian League and its allies, which sought to eliminate Anti-Noctic League's monopoly control over the Noctic-Rabrev trade that had grown in recent years to permeate the entirety of Lake Morovia. In response to the establishment of the Commission, Anti-Noctic League operatives in the city of Vaeringheim deployed the use of "dirty" WM17 bombs, in an event known as the Gassing of Vaeringheim.
The Gassing of Vaeringheim
The Gassing of Vaeringheim was an act of terror carried out by operatives working on behalf of the Anti-Noctic League, in which a number of explosives containing an impure variant of the chemical weapon WM17 were set off in several key locations around Vaeringheim. The attack, which came in direct response to the establishment of the Noctic Economy Commission by the Keltian League, resulted in the deaths of dozens of civilians, and the hospitalization of several hundred more. The event marks the single largest usage of WM17 or its variants since the chemical weapon was deployed in Port St.Andre during the War of Lost Brothers. An investigation into the attack later revealed that the explosives containing WM17 were provided to the Anti-Noctic League by pro-Caputian paramilitary forces which maintain close connections to the now-dissolved Caputian government in Zalae.
The Great Gorge
The Great Gorge was a period of extreme religious and ethnic cleansing in the Alperkin, in which "nonkin" Neo-Patrovan immigrants to the region were targeted en masse by radical practitioners of the Alperkin religion. The Great Gorge immediately resulted in a mass emigration from the region, as the Neo-Patrovans, who had been settled in the region by the Caputian government, fled in terror for their lives. Reports of the Great Gorge caused consternation internationally and prompted debates in the Imperial Senate of Constancia over the provision of sanctuary for refugees and the potential to provide a contributory force to the Humanitarian Mission in former Caputia operating in and around Zalae. Late in the Haifan Civil War, the Great Gorge extended to some degree to Jezeraah, where the regional separatist government struggled to contain the illegal use of non-approved Noctic-Rabrev products, such as Noctic infused Safir meat.
Siege of Lewisburg
The Siege of Lewisburg was a military offensive spearheaded by the New Zimian War League, which sought to liberate the city from the control of anti-Bassarid forces formerly affiliated with the Order of Rochefort. The siege, which lasted for several weeks before culminating in the Battle of Lewisburg, resulted in the near-complete destruction of the city. Ultimately, anti-Bassarid forces were driven out as a result of the battle, and the ruined city came under the control of the New Zimian War League.
Southern Lake Morovia Theater
The Battle of Tel-Amin
In the days following the Bassarid conquest of the holy city of Lewisburg, Bassarid and Jingdaoese forces launched an extensive, three part campaign aimed at driving anti-Bassarid forces from the ancient Haifan city of Lewisburg. This campaign would grow to become one of the largest and most devastating military operations of the whole Haifan Civil War, second only to the campaign which would later ultimately bring an end to the Jezeraah uprising. In the first stage of the Battle of Tel-Amin, the Bassaridian and Jingdaoese air forces would coordinate on a series of air raids aimed at destroying anti-Bassarid strongholds in the city. These air raids would result in the near complete destruction of over half of the city's old district. Following a protracted period of intense fire-bombing of positions held by the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative, War League forces supported by the Jingdaoese military launched a rapid invasion of Tel-Amin. The mobilization of War League forces resulted in a strategic retreat of Morovian forces from most parts of the city. Having retreated from the city, these fighters attempted with relative success to embed themselves in rural communities around the city's periphery, where they adopted guerrilla and insurgent tactics aimed at delaying the further consolidation of control by the War League. Some Morovian fighters, retreated to the islands Jezeraah, where they sought to join the fight for control of the islands at the entrance to Lake Morovia. Some of the Morovian fighters who retreated from Tel-Amin went on to support Jezeri forces in their capture of New Monoviaville. With the retreat of Monovian forces from the Tel-Amin, the New Zimian War League and its allies shifted their focus to establishing and maintaining control of the rural areas surrounding the city. The fighting which ensued over control of these rural areas would prove to be among the most violent of the whole conflict. Eventually, with this said, Monovian forces were almost entirely driven from the region, and the War League and its allies were able to begin to prepare for their long-intended campaign against rebels in the region of Jezeraah.
Gulf of Jangsong and the Virgin Islands
In order to prevent the spread of the Haifan Civil War to other theaters around Keltia, the Keltian League in 38.94 PSSC imposed naval blockades upon the Gulf of Jangsong, in order to prevent foreign goods and services from passing to the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative through the northern Strait of Haifa, and upon the Virgin Islands, in an effort aimed at preventing the flow of goods to and from anti-Bassarid military and paramilitary organizations in the major city-states of New Kirrie and Zalae.
Mass Arrests of ESB Group Officials
On 175/3/38 PSSC the Bassarid Council of Courts confirmed that it would authorize the New Zimian War League to oversee the arrest of all high ranking ESB Group officials found operating in Keltia. The decree resulted in the arrest of at least several hundred officials. Those arrested would face indefinite detention in secret prisons in Keltia and Eura. The ultimate fate of most of those arrested during this period is not known.
In 39.02 PSSC War League forces participating in the blockade shot down a number of Hoennese aircraft which were attempting in vain to support the Palesmenian air force on a mission to deploy aid to the cities of Kedah and San Luis, marking the first military engagement between nations involved in the conflict. The Palesmenian forces were allowed to proceed unmolested; however, Hoenn retaliated by deploying F-8 Shrike fighter jets armed with air-to-surface munitions, as well as a regiment of flying majuu consisting of salamences, dragonites, charizards, and volcaronas, to hammer the blockade ships relentlessly over the following days. Though the majuu offensive provided an impressive spectacle which was spoken of for years after the fact, it proved ineffective in bringing an end to the Bassarid blockade. With this said, it was quickly discovered that surges in majuu aggression generally coincided with attempts by blockade runners to bypass Bassarid naval forces. This discovery enabled Bassarid forces to mostly prevent such blockade runners from accomplishing their illicit missions.
In 39.07 PSSC the New Zimian War League shifted its focus from a direct blockade against Hoenn, to a general blockade of the eastern Skerry Isles, which was intended to prevent the flow of goods from rogue elements in the region, including in Hoenn, to anti-Bassarid elements in former Caputia. Upon news of this, the Imperial Republic of Shireroth deployed the Noor Banner Group to Talenore and patrol vessels to the Sea of Storms and Captive Sea, to bolster the defence of their protectorate.
As a result of the blockade, Hoenn was forced to suspend its support for the Humanitarian Mission, though it remained listed as a member of the organization. The blockade, with this said, would prove to be the single most controversial action of the entire conflict, turning global public sentiment against the war, and inflaming anti-Bassarid sentiments around the world.
Result and Aftermath
Consolidation of Bassarid Control in Keltia
Through its involvement in the Haifan Civil War the Haifo-Pallicican Imperial Trade Union was able, for the first time ever, to assert itself as the undisputed predominate regional authority in Keltia. Whereas in eras prior the Bassarid nation contended against Caputia for regional dominance, the war in Haifa allowed the Imperial Trade Union to exert its control and influence across the entire continent, even in regions well beyond the scope of the war itself. In the Skerry Isles, for instance, the Imperial Trade Union imposed a blockade against Hoenn, which was met with contempt abroad, but which foreign nations were largely unable to address or to help resolve. In northern Keltia, the Bassarids imposed a blockade in the Gulf of Jangsong that impacted the flow of goods to anti-Bassarid forces in territory officially claimed by Natopia, which went entirely unopposed by regional or international forces. In the Virgin Islands, a Bassarid military campaign limited the flow of foreign aid into the former Hammish and Caputian heartland. Through each of these military operations, the Bassarid Empire was able to establish itself as the premier governing authority in Keltia. The Bassarids' undisputed preeminence in Keltia would, however, be short lived, insofar as the period following the war would see the emergence of several new regional powers including Wechua and Gran Veronia.
Expansion of the Stripping Path
As a result of the Haifan Civil War, the Stripping Path was able to emerge as Keltia's most significant, most widespread religion. After decades of efforts by the Caputian government to oppose the expansion of the Bassarid religion, the Stripping Path expanded very rapidly across Keltia as a consequence of the war in Haifa. The religion was able, furthermore, to gain a significant foothold in Benacia where it had formerly maintained only a marginal following, after the government of Kalgachia expelled the religion's followers in reaction to the Haifan Civil War. To this end, the Stripping Path was for the first time, as a result of the war in Haifa, to extend across the entire Micrasian northern hemisphere. Today, the Stripping Path is one of a few of the most pronounced, expansive, and widely practiced religions in the world.
Growth of the Noctic-Rabrev Trade
The Haifan Civil War resulted in the significant expansion of the illicit Noctic-Rabrev trade in central Keltia, and in the expansion of the Alperkin religion which is based upon the consumption of the peculiar herb. Despite the best efforts of the Bassarid Empire to contain, restrict, and control the export of Noctic-Rabrev from the region of Alperkin, the use of the drug nevertheless extended during the war across a large swath of the territory formerly controlled by Caputia, and in regions controlled by the Bassarid Empire, especially in the Maritime Markets and in Passas. The Noctic-Rabrev trade, furthermore, expanded with great effect into Jezeraah, where locals developed a taste for Noctic infused Safir meat. This expansion of the Noctic trade resulted in a minor outbreak of Noctic Vampirism in Jezeraah, and in an expansion of the Alperkin religion. The legalization of Noctic-Rabrev in Jezeraah also contributed to the development of a rift between the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative, which had been the drug's most fervent opponents, and the Jezeri government.
Decline of Morovian Nationalism
Despite the fact that it began the Haifan Civil War in a position of relative strength against the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union, the Greater Morovian Independence Initiative was woefully under-prepared to assert its claims over the Haifan region, and to defend itself and its supporters from the weight of the New Zimian War League. As a result, it was rapidly overwhelmed by Bassarid forces who drove it from its strongholds in Tel-Amin and Lewisburg, and was ultimately relegated to the position of a relatively minor, rural insurgency which played little part in the ultimate outcome of the broader conflict. While it was not completely defeated, the Morovian Independence movement lost most of its political clout as a result of the Haifan Civil War. It would continue to operate in the region surrounding Lake Morovia in the aftermath of the conflict - mostly through its support for piracy and in its opposition to the ever-growing Noctic-Rabrev trade - though not to the grand extent its leaders had envisioned at the outset of the war. By 41.60 PSSC, the ideology of Morovian Nationalism was all but extinct in the region. In its place arose a range of extremist ideologies rooted in the doctrines of the Alperkin religion.
Rise of Jezeraah
The most unexpected consequence of the Haifan Civil War was the rise and rapid expansion of the Republic of Jezeraah. Formerly a relatively peaceful and quiet population which made its home in the Abeisan Archipelago and in remote, rural parts of the Haifan Peninsula, the Jezeri people and their leaders seized upon the chaos caused by the Haifan Civil War to assert their autonomy, and independence from the Bassarid forces which now occupied and claimed sovereignty over most of the region. The sudden emergence of the Jezeri nation, by all indication, came as a surprise to the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union and the New Zimian War League, which despite its overall success in quelling the rebellion led by Morovian Nationalists, struggled to contain the expansion of Jezeraah. The Haifan Civil War, to this end, rapidly morphed from a conflict in which the New Zimian War League enjoyed rapid, significant success in terms of establishing predominance over the Haifan region, to a protracted, grueling conflict in which it struggled mightily to prevent the rise of the Jezeri separatist faction, which was as a result able to establish control over virtually all of the eastern Haifan Peninsula, and even the eastern portion of the Haifan capital city of Abeis.
Division of Abeis
Following the final battle of the Haifan Civil War, which dragged on for several weeks without any major victories for either side following the successful initial Jezeri infiltration of eastern Abeis, the Haifan capital city was divided in half such that the eastern portion of the city came under the control of the Republic of Jezeraah, while the remaining western portion was claimed by the Haifo-Pallisican Imperial Trade Union. Although the division of the city was not regarded as being ideal for either the Bassarids or the Jezeri, neither side possessed the morale or the willpower to drive the other from the city, and thus, an agreement was reached between the two opposing forces that the city would be jointly administered such that it would serve as the de-facto capital of both Bassarid Haifa, and the Republic of Jezeraah. This agreement effectively marked the end of fighting between the Bassarids and Jezeraah, and the end of the broader conflict known as the Haifan Civil War.
With the collapse of the Republic of Jezeraah in 41.60 PSSC, Abeis would be once more unified under Bassarid control. Fighting for control of the city would, however, continue well into the 40s, as forces still loyal to the dissolved Jezeri government continued to engage in acts of terrorism and violence, forcing responses from the New Zimian War League.
Loss in Confidence
Although it allowed the nation to consolidate its control over Lake Morovia, laying claim to the major cities of the former Free State of Haifa, and to assert its direct influence across Keltia and and around the world, the Haifan Civil War was considered by most Bassaridians as being a disaster for the New Zimian War League and the Council of Courts, who were regarded as having bungled their way through the conflict. In the eyes of many, the military and the government appeared unprepared for the emergence of Jezeri forces, who presented an obstacle which was disproportionate to their size, strength, or quality of leadership. To this end, the Haifan Civil War was regarded - despite resulting in territorial expansion - as the first major defeat for the War League, which until now had enjoyed significant success in its recent campaigns, in particular during the War of Lost Brothers. This perception of the conflict resulted in a general loss of confidence in the nation's government, and especially in the newly appointed Crown of Passio-Corum, Díapaza Bréidle.
This loss of confidence would persist well into the 40s PSSC, and would gradually come to be shared not only by citizens of the Bassarids, but by people, leaders, and nations across the planet. In 42.48 PSSC, the Supreme Council of the MCS, citing a lack of confidence in the Bassarid government, voted to suspend its recognition of Bassarid territorial claims around the world, including most territories gained during the Haifan Civil War. While the Bassarids would be permitted to retain the cities of mainland Haifa, it would - as a result of the decision by the MCS - be forced to renounce direct control over the cities of Lewisburg, Vaeringheim (a historical Bassarid stronghold in the region), Minab-Azis, and Tel-Amin, and areas including the Abeisan Archipelago. Facing a sudden decline in Bassarid influence, the region would be plunged once more into a period of violence, as various criminal factions - including Alperkin Noctic-Rabrev cartels and Jezeri insurgents - renewed campaigns to assert their influence and to claim control. The New Zimian War League, in turn, would be compelled to deploy forces to combat these factions, in an effort to defend Bassarid interests in Lake Morovia and central Keltia. This period of violence would come to be known informally as the Second Haifan Civil War.
Humanitarian Mission in former Caputia
The Humanitarian Mission in former Caputia was an international coalition of nations which served to provide humanitarian relief to peoples affected by the collapse of the Caputian government, in regions outside of Haifa. In 38.98 PSSC the neutrality of the Humanitarian Mission was called into question by Bassarid officials as nations such as Hoenn and Constancia increasingly offered their support for the mission. These concerns were largely allayed through a process of rigorous, blunt negotiation between the leaders of the Humanitarian Mission and the Bassarid government.
In 38.98 PSSC, the government of Constancia alleged, based on initial reports of the atrocities being committed in Haifa, that the Haifo-Pallisican government and the New Zimian War League were engaging in genocide across the entirety of Caputia and Wechua. On the basis of these reports, which seemingly conflated the Alperkin insurrectionists with the invading Bassarid forces entering Haifa, the Constancian government debated deploying a small expeditionary force to join the Humanitarian Mission in the Former Caputia. In response to these threats by the government of Constancia, the Greater Eurani Trade Association confirmed that it would increase exports from the Gulf of Aqaba.
While it is the case that despite the claims of the government of Constancia and its allies, the Haifan Civil War did not extend into Wechua, the outbreak of the conflict nevertheless resulted in a mass evacuation of the Wechuan territory. Many Wechuan citizens who abandoned their homeland during the conflict attempted to re-settle in Natopia.
The government of the República de Los Liberados provided financial support for the evacuation of Caputian citizens living in the province of San Pedro. In order to protect their interests, the Liberadosan government annexed the city of Corcovado and surrounding area. An air- and sea bridge between Corcovado and Puerto Arcadio was subsequently established.
Following the evacuation of San Pedro, the San Pedro Re-Settlement Agency drew up plans to resettle the entire region. The Bassarid government claimed that by 39.00 PSSC the region had been re-settled by as many as 160,000 Bassarid citizens. The area of San Pedro was subsequently, formally claimed by the Bassarids in 39.50 PSSC.
Located on faraway Benacia, the government of Kalgachia was not directly involved although the conflict was nonetheless a catalyst for the Octavian Import-Export Corporation to hedge its heavy investments in the Port of Vines by realigning toward the nascent economic bloc of the Batavian Confederation, aided and abetted by the Iron Company and supportive elements of the Batavian and Los Liberados governments. The Bassarid blockade of the far-smaller island state of Hoenn was perceived among Kalgachia's Ketherist parishes to be an act of intransigent archonic thuggery and the plight of the Hoennese became something of a cause célèbre as the blockade drew on, promoted by elements of the Kalgachi intelligentsia affiliated with the DEO and the state church who began exerting rare public pressure on their sub-surface sovereigns to unwind the country's Bassarid investments.
The Church of Kalgachia pulled the final trigger by formally denouncing the Stripping Path as an 'Archon of Irredeemable Corruption', the most heretical designation possible and one which made continued Kalgachi tolerance of the Bassarid Empire untenable. The Stripping Path was duly outlawed in Kalgachia and all Bassarid citizens were expelled, followed by a formal withdrawal of the OIEC from the Nova English Trading Company brokerage which removed its trade from the Port of Vines, although the corporation continued to trade with Nova England directly. The withdrawal of the OIEC from the Nova English Trading Company resulted in a temporary decrease in revenue for the brokerage. This decrease in revenue was more than offset when, in response to the decision by Kalgachia to remove its stake in the Port of Vines, the Bassarid government transferred control of the company Ivory of Arcadia from the Pallisican War Prosperity Fund to the Nova English Trading Company. The expulsion of practitioners from Kalgachia, furthermore, resulted in the rapid emergence of the religion known as Benacian Bassaridianism, which developed with the support of the Iron Cult of Leng.