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Sanaman Civil War

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Sanaman Civil War
Date 1 Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1698 AN – 13 Puwha Telherali (XIII) 1702 AN
Location Cisamarra, Amarra, Sanilla, Thanatos, Highpass, Shimmerspring, So Sara, Thanidor
Status Partial SFPR victory, partition of Sanama, fall of the Third Republic, exile of Chancellor of Sanama Keysa Nur Pinito Caprici to Sanaman Cibola
Belligerents
Sanama Democratic Republic of Sanama
Support

Raspur Pact Benacia Command

SFPR Sanaman Federation of People's Republics
  • Cisamarran PR
  • Amarran PR
  • West Sanillan PR
  • East Sanillan PR
  • Estarisan PR
  • So Saran PR (until 19.XIII.1702)
  • Thanatossian PR (until 18.XIII.1702)
  • Highpassian PR (until 18.I.1700)
  • People's Defence Forces
    • People's Army
    • People's Navy
    • People's Air Force
    • People's Public Protection and Safety Service
Support
  • Shireroth Shireroth: Covert support, especially to the East Sanillan DPR
  • Zeed Zeed: Military hardware, vehicles
Benacian Republic of Amarr Highpass and Sanilla
Support

Benacian Union Benacian Union

Commanders and leaders
Strength
550,000 regular forces (V.1698) 875,000 militia and revolutionary fighters (V.1698) 175,000 Vanguards
Casualties and losses
162,175 Army soldiers 251,255 militia members 76,339 persons, 1 dog

The Rice Riots of 1697 transitioned into the Sanaman Civil War in Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1698 following the Malliki Tosha Plaza Massacre and a general breakdown of the government's ability to maintain public order, leading to the national government losing effective control over large parts of the country, leaving large swaths of both urban and rural territory in the hands of various armed militias, most notably those aligned with the Peoples' Front and those aligned with the Democratic Humanist Party. In IV.1700 Sanaman authorities revealed that several SDP sympathisers working in military intelligence had been identified and arrested. The authorities noted that the treason was limited to a few isolated incidents. However, anonymous sources within the military painted a completely different picture, stressing that rebel collaboration was rampant, especially within military intelligence and strategic planning. The problem was so extensive that planners had started transitioning back to hand drawn paper maps sent by courier to try to maintain mission integrity.

The Port Esther Summit in XIV.1702 concluded the civil war, and the subsequent Port Esther Peace Treaty was signed on 20.XIV.1702.

Background

Factions

Sanama Democratic Republic of Sanama

The elected national government of Sanama, led by Chancellor Keysa Nur Pinito Caprici from the United Nationalist Alliance. The national government was composed of the United Nationalist Alliance and the Democratic Humanist Party until the 1697 Sanaman attempted military coup d'état where the leadership of the DHP was a co-conspirator. Since the government was still technically a transitional one, Nur Pinito Caprici was not allowed to appoint new ministers to the replace the DHP defectors, leaving the Council of State overworked and overstretched. The fractured nature of the government controlled territory, middling morale in the reduced and underpayed military and many SDP and DHP sympathisers in its ranks, led to the military suffering from desertion and defection from day one.

Supported by the Raspur Pact.

SFPR Sanaman Federation of People's Republics

The proto-polity organised by the Sanamati Democratic Party to fight against the national government and the DHP. The stated goal of the SFPR was the liberation of Sanama and the establishment of a communalist, socialist, feminist and ecological democratic state. Led by the Sanamati Democratic Party and its allies in the Peoples' Front, at the outset of the war the federation consisted of eight democratic people's republics. The republics controlled limited and discontinuous territories across Sanama, often surrounded by government and Humanist territories. Early in the war, rebel forces were loosely organised into combat units consisting of 1,000 fighters, which in turn were grouped into Combat Groups of five Combat Units. The units and groups had barebones staff coordinating combat operations within their area, without a formalised command structure. No overall command of the People's Defence Forces existed during most of the war, although coordination and communication between the PRs increased over time.

Members of the federation at the onset of the war:

  • Amarran People's Republic
  • Cisamarran People's Republic
  • East Sanillan People's Republic
  • Estarisan People's Republic
  • Highpassian People's Republic
  • So Saran People's Republic
  • Thanatossian People's Republic
  • West Sanillan People's Republic

Covert support from Shireroth for the East Sanillan PR via Clans Naśećyže'u and Yliekimśhu. Support from Zeed in the form of sale of military hardware, mostly armoured vehicles.

Nationalist & Humanist Party Benacian Republic of Amarr, Highpass and Sanilla

The umbrella polity for the areas controlled and organised by the Democratic Humanist Party. After having shed the democratic veneer imposed by Jasmina Hosseini to make the party electable in Sanama, the DHP fell completely in line with the N&H policies in the Benacian Union, currying their favour and support. Initially very successful, particularly in northern and western Highpass, but as the war went on, more and more beleaguered elsewhere. Support in the form of weapons, vehicles, money and volunteers flowed over the border from the UGB, but rarely reached beyond Highpass due to the fractured nature of the areas under DHP control. Managed to in some instances make strategic alliances with other entities. Supported by the N&H Vanguard divisions participating in the N&H Field Camp in Highpass.

The following entities made up the BRAHS at the beginning of the civil war:

  • Central Governorate
  • Democratic Humanist Republic of Highpass
  • Eastern Governorate
  • Humanist Republic of Richmond

Supported by the Benacian Union. Additionally, N&H cadres in mainland Drak-Modan who had not reached the evacuation point in Twoggle prior to the Shirerithian takeover were instructed to relocate to the Eastern Governorate as best they were able, so as to reinforce the regional sector cadre there.

Other entities

Five other entities controlled territory in Sanama shortly after the onset of the war. Dubbed the Nationalists, all five entities identified as nationalist and separatist. To a varying degree, all the territories under their control were havens for drug and weapons smuggling and human trafficking. Local leaders espoused democratic ideals in public, but ruled their territories as personal fiefdoms. The Laq Republic early struck a deal with the East Sanillan DPR for a strategic non-aggression agreement, allowing both factions to focus their attention on fighting the government and the Humanists.

  • County of Thanatos
  • Democratic Republic of Thanidor
  • Laq Republic
  • Republic of Cisamarra (until 10.IX.1698)
  • Republic of Shimmerspring

Covert support from Shireroth for the Laq Republic via Clan Moel.

Events

Prelude

Factional control at the outset of the war.

The Rice Riots transitioned into the civil war in Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1698, with Peoples' Front and Democratic Humanist Party militias forming and taking over large areas of Sanama, with the stated intent of guaranteeing public safety and order. The dominant party in the PF, the Sanaman Liberation Front (revolutionary) changed name to the Sanamati Democratic Party (Tatawal Koslhen Sharamyaya Sanamati), with "Sanamati" being a neologism meaning "Sanaman person" in the wider sense of a citizen of the Sanaman state. At the same time, the TKSS assumed supreme guidanceship over the Peoples' Front, with the other parties becoming entities within the wider TKSS. The TKSS also established several democratic people's republics across Sanama to organise the struggle against the government and other militias, while providing services and a governing framework for the areas under its control.

The communalist groups formed around the TKSS coalesced into a growing popular movement, where more and more people joined the revolutionary forces. Many sympathisers also engaged in other ways, such as organising citizen's committees, local public safety groups, supply runs, and other kinds of direct and indirect support. The various groups soon consolidated a number of areas under their control. The Cisamarran Democratic People's Republic formed in the west, from Porcavacca on the Napole peninsula all the way up and past Acquecalde, bordering in the east to the Amarran DPR, controlling much of the Amarran coast and large parts of Fatehpur Sikri. In the south and southeast, the Western and Eastern Sanillan DPR's formed with a combined leadership, controlling four separate areas. The western part formed in and around Niyi, the central around Soli and Rhan, the eastern from Pakor City and eastwards, while the fourth area was the entire island of Kayalëkada. Local uprisings in Brightown and New Woodshire in Thanatos quickly formed the Thanatossian DPR, and in Highpass the Highpassian DPR formed centered on Abermeade. The final DPR formed on So Sara and Gehenn after local Yardistani farmers joined the communalist cause against oppressive government and fascism. Simultaneously old civil service cadres, leftover Shirerithian administrative cadres and downsized military personnel joined the Democratic Humanist Party, taking over three smaller pockets in Amarra and Sanilla: one centered on Richmond and Gardenholm, one stretching across central Sanilla and one centered on Pinito City. The most successful Humanist entity was though the Democratic Humanist Republic of Highpass, controlling most of northern, central and western Highpass, owing much of its success to active support from the Benacian Union. The surrender of Rhodondra was a particularly embarrassing debacle for the Sanaman government. In Cisamarra, Thanatos, Z and Thanidor, so-called "Democratic Republics" were also formed. These were however little more than gangs controlled by local strongmen seizing the opportunity when the national government was engaged elsewhere. The democratic republics would prove throughout the war to be havens for drug and arms smuggling and human trafficking.

Developments

The Battle of Niyi commenced on 21 Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1698, when government forces launched a pincer attack targeting the strategically important railway hub in Sanestira, with the intent of cutting off SDPR transports between the north and the south of the SDPR. In response, the SDPR scrambled defences and launched a surprise attack from west of Hala City towards Neliko, aimed at cutting off supply lines between government-controlled western Niyi and Port Niyi. The battle, or rather series of battles, turned out to be the fiercest yet in the Sanaman Civil War. The fight over Niyi, Sanama's most populous metropolitan area and the cultural and economic center of the country, came to an end on 15.XI.1698, with a massive victory for the rebel forces, from then on organised as the People's Defence Forces. The surrender of several Army units at the end of major hostilities in Niyi considerably weakened the Sanaman Army in general and western Sanilla in particular. The PDF also seized Atesira and Lluson garrisons as well as Niyi Air Force Base, resulting in a considerable boost to the PDF in western Sanilla.

The First Western Offensive was launched on 13 Puwha Amerhali (VIII) 1698, when rebel forces affiliated with the Cisamarran PR attacked Army units in Porto Napole and western Cisamarra. The rebels had received several shipments of domestic vehicles as well as Zeedic imports via the Amarran PR. The government forces in Porto Napole had a distinct disadvantage, since they consisted almost exclusively of naval security personnel with limited ground combat experience and equipment. With reinforcements across the line and mustered locals, the Army managed to almost match the rebel forces in quantity. The offensive was a moderate victory for the rebels, after taking much of government-controlled Cisamarra, except for Rosaria and Telljano. After a mutiny and defection in the command of Porto Napole Air Force Base, the base and parts of the city were taken by the rebels. A limited ceasefire was declared on 11 Puwha Mongkoli (IX) 1698.

Territorial control in Cisamarra, 10.IX.1698.

Simultaneously, the Democratic Republic of Cisamarra, controlling much of central and northern Cisamarra and feeling an increased encirclement due to movements in the south, launched an offensive against the government-controlled area around Santo Cretomano and the garrison there on 21 Puwha Amerhali (VIII) 1698. The DRC forces also pushed south until they clashed with PDF units. The DRC immediately suffered pushback, losing ground to both the government and the PDF. With the government push on their southern flank, the DRC risked getting cut in two. Meanwhile, the DRC pushed hard on the western flank gaining ground into PDF controlled territory. The DRC offensive quickly turned out to be a gross miscalculation, when the Sanaman Army broke through all the way to the Tellian border, and the PDF smashed the western flank and encircled Brescja. On 7 Puwha Mongkoli (IX) 1698 the DRC sent requests for ceasefire to both the government and the PDF, but both were immediately rejected. Instead the PDF defeated the forces defending Brescja, while the Army pulled one unit back to defend the Santo Cretomano Garrison. With the conquest of Brescja, the campaign became a race for Fenicottero. On 10 Puwha Mongkoli (IX) 1698 the DRC forces defending the capital Fenicottero were defeated by the Army, with the government regaining control over the city and the remaining parts of the DRC. The Cisamarran People's Republic kept control over Brescja and the areas west and southwest of the city. Several secession leaders were arrested and shipped to Semisa City. This campaign proved to be one of the most ill-advised during the entire civil war.

Territorial control, western Sanilla, 16.XV.1698

On 16 Puwha Yuhali (XV) 1698 Army units out of Port Niyi and Neliko launched an attack to the northeast to push PDF forces back behind the lakes previously serving as the border between government-controlled and rebel controlled areas. For once taking the rebels somewhat off guard, the Army succeed in gaining some ground, but was unexpectedly marred down by defection in certain critical units, such as artillery and battlefield intelligence. The problem was compounded by a government still struggling to pay decent wages to the military, while the rebels controlled the economic center of the country, Niyi. The defending rebel units were reinforced from Niyi, after the rebels successfully scaled up their recruitment efforts. The reinforced rebels managed to regain the lost ground, and emboldened by this turn in luck, expanded the battle across the front between Port Niyi and Sentora. This forced the Army to redeploy units from across their controlled territories as well as quickly raise supporting mustered infantry. The PDF however quickly gained ground, getting closer and closer to both Port Niyi and Neliko, threatening to shut the Army completely out of western and southwestern Sanilla, as well as getting dangerously close to the important naval base in Port Niyi. It was at this point, on 2 Puwha Pupawli (I) 1699, that the Bordwell Mutiny rocked the Sanaman government and military to its core. The Vice Chief of the Admiralty Amiral Charles Bordwell defected to the rebels, ultimately taking about 70 percent of the Sanaman Navy with him, and taking control of the naval base in Port Niyi after hours of intense fighting. In less than four days the People's Defence Force gained a massive naval branch, tentatively dubbed the People's Navy. The new naval forces gained by the PDF turned the tide in southwestern Sanilla, with forces pushing west and defected units pushing east from Port Niyi Naval Base, supported by naval artillery. Meanwhile, the gains of the PDF cut off government units further south from supplies. The final shot was fired on 5 Puwha Pakali (III) 1699, when the PDF defeated the final army contigent in Port Niyi.

As a result of the loss of Port Niyi, the Army attacked the Central Governorate on 13 Puwha Pakali (III) 1699, to connect the government-controlled areas from Semisa City to Puri Xalene with the area stretching from east of Niyi to Susston. The Humanist forces were largely caught off guard, since they had been relatively spared from attacks so far during the civil war. The Army outnumbered the Humanists completely, and with the isolated nature of the Central Governorate, as well as the lack of popular support and small recruiting base, the Humanists never managed to put up much of a fight. The campaign concluded on 11 Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1699 with the conquest of Telarha and the arrest of the local Humanist leadership. Coordinated with the attack on the Central Governorate, the Army also moved against the Humanist Republic of Richmond in an effort to connect their controlled areas in Amarra together. The Army quickly conquered large areas in the west and northeast, while the Humanists managed to stall the attack in the defence of Ranti Lloperat. The Army transitioned into a siege after having completed their primary objective in connecting their three areas.

Territorial control in Sanama, 1.VII.1699

On 23 Puwha Kawlapali (IV) 1699 the garrison in Sharisa defected to the PDF, allowing the East Sanillan DPR to connect its two exclaves. Following that as well as several moves across the nation to claim uncontested land, there followed a period of minor skirmishes along lines of control, while all factions consolidated their positions.

On 4 Puwha Amerhali (VIII) 1699 skirmishes along the line of control between government-controlled Palë City and West Fatehpur Sikri on one side, and rebel-controlled Fatehpur Sikri on the other, descended into close quarters battles in the Sikri urban landscape, becoming the start of the Battle of Sikri. After months of intense fighting, the battle came to an end on 3 Puwha Yushali (XI) 1699 when the PDF took control of Menura Garrison, while encircled Army units in Palë City surrendered. The Army then retreated to defendable positions. The position of the Sanaman Armed Forces became even more strained with this result, as the partisans now controlled the two major metropolitan areas in the country, together containing over 45 million people, while the Army controlled large swaths of sparsely populated agricultural lands and forests. Support from Benacia Command was at an all time low, to a large degree because of the Sanaman withdrawal from the military command structure of the Raspur Pact, as well as the openly critical position of its leadership towards the Pact and the Benacian Union.

Territorial control in the northern territories, 18.I.1700

On 12 Puwha Ihawli (XIV) 1699 representatives from the Republic of Shimmerspring and the Democratic Humanist Republic of Highpass signed a non-aggression agreement at an undisclosed location. The agreement also contained provisions for the division of the northern territories between them, with Shimmerspring claiming all of the Territory of Shimmerspring and Highpass claiming all of the Country of Highpass. The deal was seen as very negative for the government's ability to control and reclaim the northern territories, a task made even more difficult by the Kortilhera Mountains. On 13.XIV.1699 both Highpass and Shimmerspring attacked the narrow band of government-controlled land between them, in an effort to quickly consolidate their positions. Since the partisans in the Highpassian PR controlled both the rail and road connections to the north, the Army could not properly reinforce, and with massive support from the Benacian Union, the Humanists in Highpass managed to conquer a large part of eastern Highpass in two weeks, with the Army being stuck between well-equipped Humanists from the west and fanatical Shimmerspring nationalists from the east. On 23.XV.1699 the only holdout in Highpass was the Highpassian PR, while the Republic had just pushed the remaining government forces out of Jakovita, forcing them to evacuate through Shireroth. By 18.I.1700 the partisans in Highpass had surrendered, leading to mass executions in Abermeade, while the Republic was engaged in a full frontal assault against the Army units defending Mortis Mercatoria. Seizing the opportunity while the Army was engaged against the Nationalists in Shimmerspring, the Thanatossian PR launched an attack to the east, while the nationalists in the County of Thanatos moved west, creating a two-front attack on the military bases in Westham, Charlestown and Raynortown. Over three months of fighting, Shimmerspring managed to conquer Mortis Mercatoria, largely because of popular uprisings in support. In the same time, the Thanatossian PR took Westham and the County of Thanatos seized both Charlestown and Raynortown, capitalising on an overstretched and undersupplied Army. A local truce was called on 21.IV.1700. The new positions set up a frontline between the two Thanatos, with the PDF enjoying an advantage in both personnel and hardware.

The collapse of 1700

By VIII 1700 the Sanaman armed forces were at their breaking point. Several years of sustained pressure on multiple fronts, combined with a distinct disadvantage in both support and manpower, and with that an ineffective political and military leadership marred by rebel collaboration and defection, caused the Army and inept Air Force to collapse under its own weight. The badly organised reduction of the Army to a smaller but better equipped and trained organisation had led to serious staffing shortages and middling mustering efforts. These factors combined with an increased frustration at both the lack of strategic leadership and absent wages, caused a wave of defections and desertions across Sanama in VIII 1700. Triggered by the defection of a battalion in Rivermeet, entire units would either defect to a rebel side, most often the PDF, while others would just disappear into the nearest forest. In combination with the military collapse, a constantly repositioning civil adminstration also fell apart into chaos.

The collapse and expansion of PDF territory also forced the SFPR to actually organise in a more formal way, having been little more than an umbrella term for the various People's Republics since the start of the war. Throughout the civil war, local civilian control in PDF-occupied territories had been managed by various workers', farmers' and citizens' committees, depending on the composition of the local population. These wielded almost unlimited civilian power, but were also sometimes engaged in conflicts with local Humanist committees. It was also not uncommon for neighbouring committees to jostle over territory. They relied heavily on popular support, especially in the working class and among farmers, constituting the base of the Sanamati Democratic Party, and new committees would be formed if a neighbourhood was dissatisfied with the services provided by their old committee. The committees also assumed taxation powers by the consent of their constituencies, and commonly provided such services as public safety, fire and rescue, waste collection, water and sewage, power distribution, education, roads and parks maintenance and basic healthcare. It wasn't uncommon for some services to be provided by special dedicated committees, and some like healthcare were also quite often provided by federations of committees. Private small businesses were usually allowed to continue to operate without much interference, while larger companies were reorganised under worker control. It was in this environment that the Sanamati Democratic Party attempted to impose a more formalised structure.

The people's republics that were organised across the nation during the civil war were local organisations of the Sanamati Democratic Party. These were after the collapse converted into polities, with the party organisations expanded into civil administrations. This largely succeeded in Amarra and Sanilla, with high levels of popular support among the Sanaman population. However, the efforts were less successful in Cisamarra, Thanatos and So-Sara. After the initial satisfaction with the victory of the PDF and liberation from imposed rule from Semisa City, the population quickly pivoted to a more nationalistic sentiment. During IX.1700 and forwards, protests broke out across the non-Sanaman areas in Cisamarra, Thanatos and So-Sara, with resurgent Salomist support growing across all those territories except Cisamarra. On 13.XIII.1700 former Presidente delle Paese Gjanluigi Vinfetto and supporters entered a meeting of the steering committee of the Cisamarran People's Republic. After a short scuffle, the committee members were all arrested and transported to the border with the Amarran People's Republic where they were dumped. Vinfetto subsequently proclaimed the Republic of Cisamarra under his presidency. Being both charismatic and a member of the Vinfetto family, he quickly gained massive support across Cisamarra for his nationalist and populist positions. With a string of attacks against PDF positions and a growing fervent nationalist sentiment, the PDF chose to withdraw across the Amarran border. The conflict then transitioned into low intensity border skirmishes, with Cisamarra claiming independence and the PDF insisting that secession is against the will of the people. That position was somewhat undermined when a plebiscite resulted in 89 percent support for independence.

In II.1701 a leadership struggle broke out within the SDP, with two wings of the party vying for power. The Conservatives wanted to institute a top-down structure on Amarra and Sanilla, to complement the bottom-up local organisation, while the Communalists wanted to build a national organisation from the bottom up, where local structures federate. The Communalists emerged victorious, selecting a new steering committee of the SDP, co-chaired by Muqana Soke and Piter Oreya. As a result of the election, the SDP encouraged the development of local neighbourhood councils. Through series of public meetings and congresses across the PDF-controlled areas, neighbourhoods would form councils to manage their local affairs. These councils were direct correlaries to the ffaman sawa system, which in turn was based on the traditional Sanaman llusan system. These would then federate into larger polities tentatively called communes. In turn these would combine into communal unions, which in turn formed cantons, the term harking back to the previous socialist state formed in 1671. These new cantons usually coincide with the previous provinces under the third republic. The provinces in turn combined into people's republics. The public meetings and congresses also considered a new national constitution, distributing competences across the various levels of administration.

The elected government under Nur Pinito Caprici fell on 3.II.1701, when the PDF attacked the national capital along the entire line of control. The Chancellor, parts of her administration and her family managed to escape into exile in Sanaman Cibola, still controlled by loyalist forces. The Humanist Republic of Richmond fell on 18.II.1701 and the Eastern Governorate on 24.II.1701. For the rest of 1701 and 1702 the civil war consisted mostly of skirmishes along the various lines of control, as several entities consolidated control and established their internal political and administrative structures. The civil war came to an effective end with the Shirerithian intervention in So Sara, Thanatos and Shimmerspring on 13.XIII.1702. Low levels of support for the people's republics in Thanatos and So-Sara, combined with nationalist and Salomist uprisings in their areas of control, as well as internal power struggles among their leaders, led to the collapse of the Thanatossian People's Republic on 18.XIII.1702 and the So Saran People's Republic on 19.XIII.1702.