| Tianchao Jingdao|
Empire of the Pure Path
|Motto: Sensible and Ruthless|
|Anthem: Alte Kameraden|
|As part of Shireroth (Kildare): 1.5.0 - 15.4.6|
|Largest city||Chuanliyang, Sizhecheng, Tianhoucheng, Xiacheng, Zhuaricheng|
|Official language(s)|| Official language: |
|Government||Absolutist theocratic monarchy|
|- Heavenly Light||Chidao Emperor|
|- Diwang (Head of the Grand Secretariat)||Zhang San|
|- Legislature||Chao Suweiai|
|Establishment|| Grand Duchy of Southbatavia:|
01.06.1583 (December 11st 2011)
|National forum||Forum (1)|
|National animal||Two-headed Eagle|
|National food||Safir wings with cabbage|
|National drink||Imperial white tea|
|National tree||Holy Ginseng Tree|
The Jingdaoese Empire, formerly known as the Jingdaoese-Apollonian Union, and in ancient times referred to as Empire of Jingdao and Southbatavia, is an Anglo-Dutch micronation. The official name of the empire is Tianchao Jingdao which translates from the original Jingdaoese to English as Celestial Empire of the Pure Path. This official name is mentioned in the Tianchaodao. Other - less frequently used names - are the Empire of the Pure Path and - when referring to the ruling dynasty the Empire of the Great Jing.
Through its long history, the Empire has seen much violence, destruction and mass immigrations, which often had religious and cultural causes. The region populated by the Jingdaoese has, since its establishment, been changed twice: the first time they migrated from Cibola to the former Antican Isles and later the centre of political power moved to the west (after Kildare was annexed into Jingdao). Instead of collapsing, these disasters proved to be omens for a rebirth and strengthening of the Nation its power. While to the outside world, the Empire's culture seems limited to an Asian-styled culture, but in reality it has a diverse mix of European (mainly German) and Asian cultures which have influenced the daily life of its citizens and the Heavenly Court and even Jingdaoese can still be surprised when visiting another province or State.
An important element of its society is the devotion towards the Emperor, of which some are called Heavenly Light if they have proven themselves to be reincarnations of one of the Goddess Sisera or Ancient Prophets. Depending on the era, the power and influence of the Emperor has differed, but never truly diminished. Even after the Destruction by the Obedience Machine in 1631 AN, the Emperor received tremendous political power, despite the establishment of the Imperial Assembly. The democratic institutions collapsed and were discredited during and after the Geming War.
The Jingdaoese People are renown for their propaganda and cultural development. Within its borders live very diverse ethnic and cultural groups as a result of the Empire's annexation of the Apollonian Republic (Kildare), which held several ancient micronational civilisations within its borders (going back to the Apollo Sector). For a long time, the government policy was to incorporate these cultures instead of trying to erase them. This policy, introduced by the Haigui Emperor in 1622, focused on assimilation instead of annihilation. Citizens were allowed to follow the culture and faith as they saw fit, as long as certain aspects (mainly religious ones) were represented in one way or another. For example, the position of the Emperor was the sole cultural aspect that was non-negotiable. Citizens were expected to, in one way or another, to recognise the presence and special position of their divine Emperor. Several successors of the Haigui Emperor introduced new and harsher restrictions towards non-Jingdaoese groups, with the introduction of the Tianchaodao and Zhengbing Programme as its highlights under the reign of the Sheng Emperor.
The 1640's, during the reign of the Sheng Emperor, were the reboot of a more aggressive assimilation program called the Sheng Restoration. Those who were not considered sufficiently in line with Jingdaoese customs were cast out from society and treated as wild animals. While the empire remained proud of its multi-ethnic composition, it also strove towards strict monoculturalism. Even now, this policy still exists towards tribespeople who seek citizenship.
With the arrival of the Jingdaoese Spring, the Mingshi Emperor accepted to play a more symbolic role in Jingdaoese politics. The establishment of the Jingdaoese-Apollonian Union under Diwang Jung Shung, brought other non-Jingdaoese ethnic groups reluctantly more political rights and freedom of movement. The experiment was a failure and the Shun Coup brought an end to Jung Shun's and the Mingshi Emperor's reign. In 1647, the Xianfa Constitution delivered some promised changes and Jingdao became a de jure constitutional monarchy with extraordinary powers for the Heavenly Light.
Between 1653 and 1657 the nation saw a lot of military action during the War of Lost Brothers, just another but extremely deadly part of the ongoing Sxiro-Jingdaoese Confrontation. After the war, social unrest and upheaval had to be squashed, which was a daunting task for the new empress, the Meiyo Emperor, who saw herself confronted with a nation that had exhausted some of its best men and women during the war. This unrest led to the restoration of a minor, the Chidao Emperor, to the Throne, and the more or less voluntarily abdication of the Meiyo Emperor (avoiding a civil war) in 1659 AN.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Origin
- 2.2 Pre-Independence Era (1583 - 1592 AN)
- 2.3 First Empire (1592 - 1602 AN)
- 2.4 First Diaspora (1602 - 1604 AN)
- 2.5 Second Empire (1604 - 1623)
- 2.6 Third Empire (1623 - present)
- 2.6.1 Chauvinist policies
- 2.6.2 Oversea conflict and Euran War
- 2.6.3 Demise
- 2.6.4 Sheng Restoration
- 2.6.5 The Jingdaoese Spring
- 2.6.6 Constitutional stability in the Xianfa Era
- 2.6.7 The Hai Era
- 2.6.8 The Troubles of the Meiyo Era
- 2.6.9 The Chidao Era
- 2.7 Demographics
- 2.8 Government and politics
- 2.9 Administrative Subdivisions
- 2.10 Foreign Relations and Military
- 2.11 Culture
- 2.12 Sports
- 2.13 Industrial power
- 2.14 See also
- 2.15 References
Jingdao holds many different names, which it received through time. Some even say that the only thing the Jingdaoese and Elwynnese have in common is their love in giving their Realms numerous names with each their own significance.
The nation is frequently referred to as Jingdaoese Empire, or simply Jingdao. When it still was located on the Cibolan continent, the name Empire of Jingdao and Southbatavia was still frequently used. The citizens had left behind their colonial past, but still used the name in official documents. Several Decrees refer to the name of the early Emperors (like the Ci Emperor) seem to have the habit of including Southbatavia in the name. Over time this led to confusion, as both Jingdao and Southbatavia did no longer refer to separate regions, but overlapped.
Other names which are still used are: Empire of the Pure Path, which is mainly a religious title and is used in religious rites, the Third Great Jingdaoese Empire, which simply refers to the Third Heavenly Era in which the current nation exists, the Great Jing Dynasty; which refers to the Dynasty of Erasmii which is pure (Jin) and Holy Grand Empire of Jingdao, which was a name frequently in use throughout the reign of the Haigui Emperor and Dashi Emperor.
The history of Jingdao is a long one and goes back to the time it was just a colony and outpost of the Kingdom of Batavia. It survived its parent nation and grew into a nation which survived destruction after destruction, even making those destructions part of its culture and religious dogma's.
The history is closely intertwined with mythical, religious and fictional works, as of some periods not much is known, because of the loss of important documents.
The very earliest mythological foundation of the Jingdaoese people predates their presence on the Cibolan continent and is closely linked with Soloralist and Catologian myths, and even Kildarian folklore. According to legends, the Jingdaoese became a distinct group in Airosamente (current Xiacheng, also known as Apollo City). The tales tell about how the Great Plague had rampaged throughout the world and had almost made all Mikrons go extinct. With that, the Era of Man had begun, and the Gods and Mikrons slowly left Micras for mankind to rule.
It was in Airosamente that mankind constructed a tower, the Tower of Airosamente, which would look over the world. It had to act as a symbol of unity of mankind, and its desire to reach the world of divine gods, who had left their world. The Gods were, however, not impressed, but saw the humans' attempts to enter Heaven as a grave insult towards the Gods who had so long taken care of humankind. No compromise between on how to act was reached between the gods, and they decided to wait and see.
In the mean time, greed overtook several of the leaders of Airosamente. Some of them started proclaiming the construction as a challenge to the supremacy of the Divine Beings, and not as an attempt to honour them. In those days, a young girl was born from the ashes of the earth and brought to live by Cato and His wife Germania. To avoid direct interference with humankind, and to show them the right path to follow, that girl was blessed with extraordinary power, charisma and wisdom. The girl, who was blessed with the name Sisera, began to preach and soon gathered groups of people around Her.
These became Her followers, who recognised in Her the words of the Gods. For years She preached in name of Germania and Cato, warning the people not to be overconfident. But the older She became, the more She was ignored. The number of followers decreased and many of them were forced to leave their family behind. This small group which entrusted Sisera with their life would later become the core of the Jingdaoese People.
On a certain day, when Sisera had already reached the age of 88, She spoke to the workers at the Tower, once more warning them for what they did. The workers, fed up with Her warnings, began to throw stones to Her and gave Her a slow and gruesome death. Those who followed Her came to Her help, but to no prevail. When they reached Her, the wounds that had been inflicted were too grave. She and Her followers would never forget what the Hun (impure) People had done to their Prophet, Daughter of Heaven.
When She entered the Mines of Germania, Her mother awaited Her and said She had deserved Her eternal peace more than anyone, even if mankind did not dare to listen to the Truth. Sisera knelt before Her mother and asked Her to give Her a new chance. She saw hope for the future and was convinced that She could rescue at least a few souls. Germania therefore listened to the pleas of Her Daughter and reincarnated Her.
The reincarnation came with a price: She would forever, till the end of times, have to return to Micras to save Her people from danger. Her reincarnations would be granted the power to experience things from Her previous lives. Later, based on this, the Heavenly Initiation Rites would be used to inaugurate the first High Priests under the Zuxiang Dynasty, and eventually as ascension rites of the Heavenly Light during the Erasmii Dynasty.
That being said, She returned to Airosamente, grew up among the love of Her followers, and once more led them on their crusade against impurity. Once more, the unbelievers mocked them, but in the end the punishment of the Gods made an end to the mockery. The Gods confounded their speech, so families and friends became divided and could no longer understand each other. Bloodbaths followed and, as usual, the Jingdaoese were blamed, as they had remained one solid group.
Humanity shattered and Sisera led Her people far away to a place where they would be safe, and could live in peace, harmony and spread the purity of their believes. Her people were thereafter led by Her descendants and, on occasion, Sisera would reincarnate. Not all descendants were blessed with the divine guidance of the Gods, but when they were, the people followed with a blind devotion. History will learn us that the Jingdaoese are - more than any other people - not attached to the land they were born on. Where there Heavenly Light is, they will follow.
In the end, it was the Ying Emperor of the Zuxiang Dynasty who in 351 bAN proclaimed the creation of a state for the Jing to live in. Aided by the High Priest Beneth ben Erasmus, the young emperor gave his people a new home, where they would stay until the reign of the Haigui Emperor, almost 1,900 years later.
Pre-Independence Era (1583 - 1592 AN)
The true history of Jingdao is - ironically - linked with the nation it would later govern: the Kingdom of Batavia. Throughout the reign of King Arkadius II des Vinandy several Batavian governments made attempts to increase the prestige of their nation (and appeal to the growing imperialist and nationalist groups within the country).
Industrial growth had led to an immense increase in population, surplus, which in turn led to new social tensions. Numbers of concerned people who also saw an increase in rules and laws (especially because of the liberal party, which pushed through an extensive expansion of the law system) and felt that there freedom was slowly limited, wanted to move to a less bureaucratic place.
It was then that groups of Batavian sailors and military men looked southwards, to the Cibolan continent. West of the Empire of Alexandria was untamed territory: peoples like the Aragonese, Saxons (Nederburgians) and Qingdaoese would be no match for the military might of Batavia. The earliest attempts to settle a decent colony, Aragon, found place in 1526.
The large amount of small settlements and colonies would eventually, under pressure of the early colonists, be united under a loose union called Batavian Cibola. From that moment, more and more colonists moved land inwards. This is also seen as the moment in which Batavian colonists and locals start to work together. Certain mixed communities start to grow, and the colonists made their first contact with the Saxons and Qindaoese who lived more eastwards (and who would later become known as the Jingdaoese).
The existence of the Batavian Cibolan colony was quickly challenged when in 1557 a civil war broke out between the Nederburgian, Aragonese and Batavian forces. The war was ended, but at the cost of hundreds of lives and a growing distrust.
In 1571 the Batavian Cibolan colonies were reformed and placed under a more centralised administration to combat political ineffectiveness and corruption. The colonies also underwent a name change, becoming Great Aragon, and saw the introduction of former Aragonese symbols. The attempts to spread democratic ideals in this region became very unpopular when massive electoral fraud was discovered in several local elections.
Through the ages, dissatisfaction with colonial rule would only grow slowly. It would take till chaos on the Homelands became clear and civil war broke out in the North, that the colonists and colonials took power in their own hands. The real birth year of the South Batavian nation is 1583, the year in which Herman Civilis became Grand Duke of the southern colonies and formed the Grand Duchy of South Batavia.
The ancestors of the Jingdaoese would watch most of the events which unfolded during these colonial years from a distance. The Qingdaoese, who had lived ages without the guidance of a descendant of Sisera, had retreated themselves behind the safe mountains and lived a prosperous life with the gold they found in their mines. It would be till the arrival of the Erasmus Dynasty in Nederburg (north of the Qingdaoese valley), that the group would start actively participating in politics again. With the rise of Herman Civilis and the presence of Erasmii, the Jingdaoese started backing the colonies with both manpower and financial means. The isolated Qingdaoese region would become the cradle of later imperial power. They once more took up the name Jingdaoese, as they felt that the moment was right.
While civil strife had unfolded in the north, South Batavia remained part of the Batavian nation and flourished while increasingly expanding its industrial power. It saw important (symbolic) events like hosting Expo 2012, an intermicronational world exhibition, in the Nederburgian city of Heemecht.
Times were changing, and time seemed to have ran out for the old Kingdom of Batavia. Herman Civilis left office, just before he died, in favour of Mordechai ben Erasmus. Mordechai would later become known as the first Emperor and would prepare the path towards independence. In 4779 ASC, his son, the later Kaiming Emperor would declare the southern colonies free from the Batavian oppression and establish an empire which would influence the politics of many Micrasian countries.
First Empire (1592 - 1602 AN)
Colonial Resistance and Independence
In less than 250 ASC years, the Cibolan colonies had grown from a set of backward colonial settlements and villages into a dependency with a certain amount of prestige. Simon ben Erasmus, son of Mordechai, inherited a Grand-Duchy which was flourishing. But dark clouds were gathering in the north: conflicts and crises followed each other and it became clear that Batavia was looking to its colonies to carry most of its financial problems. In a daring move, Simon resisted against the government in 's Koningenwaarde and proclaimed the end of what he perceived as an unequal relationship between the Fatherland and its colonies.
The Empire of Southbatavia and Jingdao was established and from one day on another, the soldiers and public servants who had been ruled by their northern masters received the news that they would now serve an Emperor who was truly blessed by Heaven. The Kaiming Emperor became the first true Emperor and Heavenly Light, endorsed by the Catologian Church, but was confronted with much scepticism from several layers of the population. One of His first acts was to raise his father into status. Mordechai, who had served the Realm both as Prophet and ruler, was proclaimed posthumously the Mengjiang Emperor, which gave His own ascension to the Throne some feeling of continuousness.
Threats to the Dynasty
With the energy of a young man, the Kaiming Emperor introduced a number of reforms, announced construction programs - especially to improve the IJzerbaan (railway network) and replaced disloyal servants by more loyal ones. Peasant revolts were quickly beaten down and massive food programs were started throughout the nation. Diplomatically He was successful in receiving recognition from both the old homeland as other realms. While documents contradict themselves, historians agree that the Tegong was also established in this period with the duty to serve the Heavenly Light with utmost dedication. The power entrusted to this organisation would soon lead to confrontations within the administration and would even threaten the reign of the Emperor it was meant to protect.
While loved by His people, the Emperor was also confronted with an alarming increase in birth rate, a result of the stability during the reign of His father and own early reign. It didn't take long before Jingdao was confronted with logistical and social problems because of the surplus population. Corruption was widespread and made the well-intended aid to battle poverty ineffective in some provinces. While the Emperors were often loved and even worshipped, the government saw several peasant uprisings during the 1591 AN and onwards. During one of those uprisings, a young sergeant, Yuan Windsor, defended his post with a handful of soldiers against a mob of over 10,000 peasants. Yuan soon became a rising star within the military and within the year, in 1592 AN, he was chosen by the Kaiming Emperor to "clean up the house". His appointment as Diwang led to an immense power shift from the Throne to a simple nobleman.
The Imperial Court was, and had always been, a battleground of several groups: the Armed Forces (the Army, because the Empire lacked a decent Navy in those days. This would change during the Second Empire), the Catologian Church (which would later lose a lot of its power to the Bureaucrats) and civil authorities were in a constant struggle to gain power and influence over the decisions made by the Grand Secretariat.
In those days the Emperor had been ruling His Realm from behind the safe walls of Zijincheng, the capital city which was limited to access by only carefully-chosen personnel and high officials (a policy which had been copied for the Palace of Daocheng). Well-intended Decrees were published here and spread throughout the country, but because Yuan was the one who actually left the huge palace complexes, he succeeded in gaining more and more power over time. As a man of the military, he favoured the growth of the Armed Forces and sought to reduce the powers of the clergy. This brought him into conflict with the Magister of the Church, Miguel Windsor (who was a distant family member).
The Shanglu Campaigns and Yuan Rebellion
The Magister was successful in convincing the Emperor to leave His palace more frequently and to regain some of the lost influence. The plans of Yuan, to gain power through legal means were temporarily foiled. The Emperor, neither blind nor deaf to the cries of His people, became convinced that the colonisation of the barbarian southern lands was the fastest and best solution to solve the overpopulation.
Campaigns were held throughout 1593 AN and the province of Barbarije was successfully integrated into Jingdao after the defeat of several tribes. This was followed with a new military campaign was launched and personally overseen by the enthusiast Emperor. With His army He moved further southwards against Shanglu, to integrate it into the nation. The campaign was successful, but the Emperor was betrayed, ambushed and kidnapped. Many thought He was dead, and the Diwang took the chance to consolidate his power. Yuan Windsor proclaimed himself Regent in the absence of the Emperor and sought to make Grand Duchess Sisera into his puppet. This plan failed miserably and a group of soldiers - together with corrupt Tegong agents - was dispatched to Zijincheng to murder the heir to the Throne.
The battle which followed destroyed a part of the palace complex and many Imperial Whites (the name of the ceremonial imperial guards) were killed in surprise before they could act. Sisera escaped thanks to the support of Tegong agents who had remained loyal to the Throne. The escape of the Grand Duchess led to confusion throughout the Empire: a part of the population rallied behind the Diwang, others behind the heiress. She retreated into the mountains, from where she frequently raided caravans with gold for the Diwangs treasury.
Revenge of the Kaiming Emperor
It took another year before the Kaiming Emperor - who had escaped his kidnappers and had lived on a cabbage farm in Shanglu - came out of hiding, rallied a part of the army behind him and took power back. After a short and bloody year, both sides agreed to hold a truce: Basella became part of a Yuan-led state known as Yuandao, while the rest of the Empire stayed loyal to the Emperor. In 4877 ASC a more definite peace treaty would be signed in Rijnsburg (in Nederburg). Yuan entered the conference room, where on first sight many important nobles and the Emperor Himself were present. It turned out to be a trap, as a way of payback for Yuans own treason. The doors were closed and locked, so nobody could leave, after which hundred thousands of equine mantises were unleashed and killed and ate all guests in the room (including the actors, some nobles and a Babkhan dignitary) alive. The Empire was finally reunited. The harsh attitude towards traitors would become part of Jingdaoese culture and habits.
In the wake of the Yuan Rebellion, a number of Jingdaoese merchants and politicians, under the leadership of Jack Mounford, who was head of a Catologian military order, sailed to the island of Calbion. Calbion was admitted as a largely autonomous province shortly after. Although Jack Mounford as Prince of Calbion had always been loyal to the Jingdaoes government, relations between Calbion and the Imperial Government have at times been strained. Several incidents occurred that made Sisera question the Calbain loyalty. These tensions reached a highpoint when Calbion declared independence. Refusing to accept, Sisera ordered her troops to attack the island. The Calbain Independence War resulted in the destruction of a large part of the Calbain nation.
First Diaspora (1602 - 1604 AN)
- See also: Jingdaoese Diaspora
In 1602 the Ci Emperor was forced into a battle with evil spirits which attempted to escape into the world of Micras. The fight lasted many days and nights. In the end, the total destruction of Cibola was ordered. Many lives were lost, and only a small part of its original population escaped. Awaiting the return of a Heavenly Light, many Jingdaoese spread throughout the world.
Second Empire (1604 - 1623)
The Empire of Jingdao-At-Sea
While Jingdao had been destroyed and many of its people roamed the world in hope to find a new living place, a Myxosean with the name Rollin Mor'Ler had gathered a number of Jingdaoese around him. His expedition, meant to find a place where both Jing and Myxoseans could live in peace, brought them to the Antican Isles to the east of the Apollonian continent.
Having been declared King of the Kingdom of Seven Isles, he came into a conflict with his two sons: his heir, Pius Mor'Ler knew that plans existed to return power to the Erasmii Dynasty. Swayed by Jezza ben Erasmus, Pius' brother (bastard son of Rollin) - Magister of the Church, Andreas Mor'Ler - became convinced that the kingdom was doomed if the Erasmii Dynasty didn't ascend to the Throne.
Andreas called upon his faithful believers to protect the realm's divine future, took out his knife and stabbed his brother in the stomach during a church ceremony. King Rollin, shocked by what happened in front of him, and the utter lack of emotion of both his bastard son, the public and his royal guard, sank away in a depression, abdicating from the Throne in favour of Jezza, who was proclaimed the Duchang Emperor.
During the early days of the reinstituted Empire. The city of Tie Gang, then known as Tyrenia, became part of Jingdao. It expanded into an important mercantile hub for the Empire, which it remains till this day.
Third Empire (1623 - present)
The Holy Grand Empire of Jingdao saw a period of great wealth, but also from despair. It was a period in which the Jingdaoese attempted to cooperate and slowly integrate the minorities within the country. This eventually led to social unrest. The weak democratic institutions, which were tolerated - but not fully endorsed - by the Heavenly Light, had a difficult time to keep up with the responsibilities which were given to them. The largest party, the National-Centrists, even openly supported a return of all power to the Heavenly Light. For this, the the last part of the celebrated Minshu Period became a period in which democratically elected parliaments were nothing more than rubber stamp institutions.
To distract the citizenry from certain problems, and to strengthen the unity and economy of the country, the political elite launched several army and naval rearmament programs. It also sought the establishment of a military bloc, the Blackrock Pact, to defend the Apollonian continent against non-Apollonian imperialists.
Both on a local and national level, politicians wanted to proof their loyalty to the State. An important issue of debate was the establishment of the State of Naród Seaski (Saksenland, Land of the Saxons) in the Antya region. The Apollontean population was seen as troublesome and a danger to the most important industrial complexes of the country. Therefore, a solution was sought and ultimately found in the form of an expulsion of the Apollonteans. The Zettai Emperor supported the move, as he Himself had witnessed their rebellious habit.
The State of Batavia, established in the north, was searching for people to develop the large swaps of uninhabited land, and welcomed the emigrants with open arms. Nonetheless, the deportation was seen as chaotic and aggressive: many attempted to flee from the soldiers who had come to arrest them, in fear that the expulsion was merely a lie, and worse awaited them.
Oversea conflict and Euran War
- See also: Declaration of war on Constancia
1636 AN saw the start of sudden hostilities between the Kingdom of Constancia and Jingdao. For the past few weeks before the war, the Constancians had made some insensitive remarks and changes to their foreign policies. This raised queries both in Natopia and Craitland, with the Natopian Grand Chamberlain of the Court of the Calm Waters going so far as to hint at the potential for the repudiation of their recently signed 'Pact of Perpetual Friendship' after being insulted with the receipt of a box tick form to complete.
However the most extreme reaction occurred in Jingdao, where the Kattei Emperor immediately responded to being labelled a fascist by conferring 'Hun' status on the entire Kingdom of Constancia . The insult towards the Heavenly Court enraged both the political elite and people of the Jingdaoese Empire. Tensions rose and in 1636 war seemed inevitable.
At that time, Constantia wasn't necessarily seen as a threat to the nation, but the Jingdaoese saw themselves increasingly surrounded by potential enemies. To avoid a total encirclement, the military saw a move on Eura as a potential strategic step to split the world in two and avoid an attack from the south. Navy sources warned that both Army and Navy were ill-prepared for any kind of war, even against a minor nation, but both the Assembly and Court ignored the warnings.
The Imperial Assembly unanimously voted in favour of war and occupation of the Constantian lands. Soon after the declaration of war, the blockade of the Sandy River began and an invasion followed. The City of Pontus Felix soon fell, after which the war would go on till 1637.
The Empire went through a massive crisis during the later stages of the Euran War (1636 - 1637). The Jingdaoese Armed Forces were successfully destroying the last remnants of the Constancians, but then disaster struck from within: secret and illegal genetic experiments done by Unit 666 in the Ghanqu District (southern Jinkeai Province) had gone totally wrong. Research to genetically modify people to become stronger, while lasting longer on lower rations, had backfired. Genetically modified slaves and prisoners of war who acted as guinea pigs successfully escaped and create havoc in Jinkeai Province.
While larger cities remained untouched at first, the thousands of genetically altered slaves reached the outskirts of cities as Chanongyuan, Yulotai and Yacheng. Increasingly concerned at the failure of the Army, atomic bombs were dropped on the area. These actions proved only partially effective. Some of the slaves had been genetically enhanced to work without protection in nuclear facilities and while they were not completely immune, they only mutated further into monstrosities. Having underestimated the dangers of those mutants, the Army and Navy responded too late. In the end, the Danya Emperor decided to isolate the country from the outside world, and gathered his armies to end this threat once and for all. In the chaos of what is described as the largest infantry charge in Jingdao's history, the Emperor disappeared (according to eye witnesses he fell after killing at least fourteen mutated slaves with his own bare hands).
Later sources contradict the exaggerated reports. Professor Zhin Haydao, court historian, came to following conclusion:
"Jingdao was both at war with a foreign enemy as itself. The Danya Emperor's administration was most likely in total panic and disarray after the sudden arrival of mutants within its borders. Scared of a repeat like the destruction of our empire on Cibola, the government overreacted, isolated itself from the world and threw nuclear bombs when it wasn't necessary. Instead of letting the Army finish the job, it sent in an army of court officials - no more than bureaucrats with a basic military training - who ordered around hundreds of thousands of levies into foolish and bloody battles. Neither the Emperor's presence on the battlefield, nor leaving a large chunk of its army and Navy in Constancia had been a necessity. It was simply a matter of terrible planning and coordination of a corrupt group of officials."—Professor Zhin Haydao, court historian, "A Thesis concerning the Mutant Disaster and Heroic Sacrifices of the Danya Emperor", 1660 AN
Like before, the Jingdaoese state had destroyed itself to guarantee the survival of humanty and its people. Without guidance, the people turned to drinking beer and watching football. The name "Jexit" was coined and a kingdom - the Geming Kingdom - established with not only a ceremonial monarchy, but a government which itself was mostly ceremonial. A Kildarian David Boghead proclaimed himself Prime Minister, but could do very little but administer a small part of the capital. The rest of the country lived in anarchy and chaos. The armed forces in Constancia were derived from their supplies and support from the homeland, and were slowly pushed back. Moral of those troops plummeted.
For years it would stay silent, as without any chain of command left, the Empire was in total anarchy. the mutants which were left still made the roads unsafe, leading to millions of people seeking their hail behind city walls. Millions of others would starve of hunger, thirst or violence. Refugee camps outside the city walls were often plagued by mutant attacks. City guards often reacted late when there was once more an attack, leading to more deaths.
- See also: Geming War
Like before, the Jingdaoese state was destroyed but it was not dead. Some of the people remembered the great ideals that they had been taught and they formed an underground movement to re-establish the Way of Purity. Once this movement had united a sizeable force, they were contacted by what remained of the Tegong, who still protected an heir to the imperial family of ancient times. The movement was armed and an assault was launched in 1640 on the office of David Boghead in Two Cocks - which was renamed Daocheng -, he was caught on the toilet and dragged on the streets with his pants still hanging below his knees. While still releaving himself David was shot dead and a photo of his corpse was made and spread for propaganda purposes.
Further assaults were launched on other cities in the vicinity of the capital and soon a significant part of the country was living again under the guidance of the Heavenly Light, the Sheng Emperor.
Revitalization and Reforms
The Sheng Emperor introduced what would soon be dubbed the Sheng Restoration, named after the Emperor Himself. With control over the Geming Kingdom restored in 1641, the Geming War came to a closure. With authority over the Realm restored, an extravagant and extensive restoration mix of reforms and projects was launched to strengthen the influence of the Throne and increase the population. At the same time, recognising the weaknesses of His nation, the Sheng Doctrine was introduced which preached neutrality towards world politics. Projects, like the Blackrock Pact became of lesser importance and funding of foreign ventures were decreased or terminated.
Both the Army and Navy became concerned with the lack of funding. No new ships had been built during this period, and many military units were outdated or lacked sufficient supplies for large scale campaigns. Politicians who voiced their concerns were silenced or bribed, while some were arrested and send eastwards under a dubious charge of treason. When the Emperor received news of these activities, he ended them, but the harm was already done.
Zhun Xan, affiliated with the Navy Faction at the Court, became Diwang in 1641 AN and cautiously proposed major refunding programs to defend the outer borders of the Empire. The National Redoubt Defence Program was one of the projects which received favour of the Heavenly Light, to much frustration of the Diwang and Navy. Zhun Xan would be hung in 6391 ASC for treason for defying the doctrines, and scheming to increase influence on the world stage.
In the meanwhile other projects were successfully implemented. Population rose tremendously thanks to subsidizing large families and the Zhengbing Programme. This increase in turn led to sometimes unforeseen domestic changes: housing shortages, peeks in good and food demands and overcrowded cities. From 1643 AN and onwards, there were increased tensions between the several groups in Jingdao. More than before, the non-Jingdaoese people felt discriminated, as the best social houses, food relief, etc. went to Jingdaoese, while they themselves often had to rely on their own less wealthy organisations.
Those tensions led to negative views on the future. It was well known that the Sheng Emperor became increasingly distrusting towards the Kildari, which formed a majority, at the end of his life. He understood that it was the devoutness of the people towards their belief in the Heavenly Light which kept those people from rioting, which made Him well aware that change was necessary. That change would - however - be brought by His son, which would lead to the so-called Jingdaoese Spring.
The Jingdaoese Spring
Rise of Mingshi
The year 1645 AN brought the death of the Sheng Emperor due to old age. The First Prince, who was meant to succeed His father as Mingshi Emperor, was rumoured to have little interest to rule over a population of which the majority did not deserve His patience and blessing. Following His ascension of the Throne, the Emperor and some close followers left the country and established an overseas colony for his monastic order.
While the Heavenly Light and the volunteers devoted themselves to the teachings of the Gods, Jingdao soon descended in political chaos. Financial problems and a lack of real leadership forced Diwang Min Yon to leave his position. The so-called Moderation Faction gained power and placed Lin Ping in power as new Diwang.
The Diwang pledged to establish a more democratic and open system, while at the same time he would start the search for a new monarch, preferably one from a country with sufficient financial power to aid the stagnant economy of the country. Lin Ping contacted the Imperial Republic of Shireroth and offered the Golden Mango Throne the crown of Apollonia.
The conservatives and hardliners in the government felt betrayed by these swift actions and saw the talks with what they saw as their arch nemesis as treason. However, at this moment the Grand Secretariat still received too much support of the Apollonian minorities and had to bide their time.
For Lin ping, the talks with Shireroth ended in a devastating loss of prestige: not only did the Kaiser refuse, but they also demanded total annexation and integration into their Imperial Republic. The backlash for the moderates was tremendous: public opinion, even among the Kildari, became once more extremely violent and anti-Shirerithian.
The hardliners in the Army, under leadership of general Jung Shun, decided to interfere. Tanks and soldiers loyal to the Tegong took control over the capital, even received support of the palace guards and proclaimed an end to any talks with Shireroth. Instead, the General, vowed to secure its independence through strengthening its influence on the world scene to combat further western imperialism.
"I have been the rightful ruler of that nation since the moment my father exhaled his last breath. I cannot accept that which has always belonged to me and treat it as a gift. While I have no interest in your political games, your mindless interventions in world politics, I am your emperor and I will remain emperor until I die and my son takes over. Do not suggest that I am not allowed to form an absolute monarchy, I desire none and that is why there won't be one. I shall visit Daocheng one day in a year to bless it and remind the Gods that it is our chosen nation. Be gone now."—The Mingshi Emperor, 'The Emperor addresses the two Jingdaoese envoys', 1645 AN
Envoys were sent to the Heavenly Light, with the offer of the Apollonian Throne. First those envoys were denied access, but the Mingshi Emperor became curious and accepted to listen to their proposal. General Jung Shun, confronted with the harsh reality that the clock couldn't be turned back could only give limited proposals: a constitutional monarchy more liberties for the several non-Jingdaoese peoples.
The Emperor agreed to act as a religious figurehead and decided to leave the Apollonian continent. Some oversea territories were became His personal property, while the mainland was brought under the constitutional framework. His personal isles became known as the Jingdaoese Monastic Order, which existed in harmony with to, but politically separated from the Jingdaoese Union.
- Read also: Shun Coup
In 1653 AN, Diwang Jung Shun was struck with a serious illness. Promised reforms and the introduction of free and fair elections among (certain) population groups were therefore put on a hold by several interest groups. Court officials who had not followed their Heavenly Light to His oversea retreat in Sankt Simon, were eager to restore the lost power of their Emperor. Using the Hammish Civil War and the ongoing conflict with Shireroth as an excuse, several officials kept blocking any kind of constitutional reform.
The Mingshi Emperor, who at that time resided in Sankt Simon, was isolated from Jingdaoese politics and unaware of the changes in Jingdaoese society. Reared by His closest advisors, the Emperor declared war upon Shireroth and its allies as a result of ongoing tensions in the Northern Sea over the blockade of Neo Patrova (Hammish territory).
In 1647 AN, after years of illness, Jung Shun retook office and oversaw what a mess had been created. Not only were his planned reforms non-existent or pushed back, Jingdao was confronted with a full-scale war: its allies of the USSO had announced neutrality or were occupying Jingdaoese territories themselves (to secure business interests, Passio-Corum had invaded several territorial possessions across the Sea of Storms), Alexandria had occupied the Pinguin Isle (Kukegonji) and the High Command warned the government that with no clear war goals the Army and Navy soon would become demotivated.
The Diwang was shocked by the recent atrocities of the Heavenly Light, who had taken an active role in declaring the war, but also had ordered purges countrywide (including against the Diwang himself). Both angered and scared of the personal repercussions, the Diwang ordered the arrest of the misguided Emperor, mobilised the population for a "war of National Self-Defence" and called for peace talks.
The coup attempt ended as quick as it had began. The dead body of Shun was found in his office. The doctor confirmed that his tea had been poisoned. His son and Tegong officer Chiang Shun found a suspect on the crime scene. In an attempt to arrest the suspect, a fight broke out and the suspect was shot down . At the same moment, the Mingshi Emperor came to a remarkable end: while praying in the highest tower of His monastery in Sankt Simon, He tripped over a banana and flew through the window. Tegong officials neither confirmed nor denied it could have been an accident.
Constitutional stability in the Xianfa Era
1647 saw the approval of a new constitution, granting the Emperor the power to intervene through veto power when necessary, but at the same time limiting His powers. This news was positively received by its fellow USSO allies, who had been concerned with the chaos in the Jingdaoese administration.
Certain freedoms were - for the first time - introduced into the legal framework. At the same time the USSO Common Market was established, which opened the local market for both trade with allied countries and allowed for investments into the country (mainly coming from Passio-Corum). With decreasing unemployment, an improvement in civil rights and elections for both the Imperial Yuan and the Diwang, moral improved.
The new Grand Secretariat under Chiang Shun swiftly passed a peace agreement, installing a Demilitarised Zone in the north at the border with Natopia and agreed with only a limited number of troops on Penguin Island (which should normalise relations with Alexandria, which felt directly threatened by the Jingdaoese presence near their mainland).
During the Xianfa Era, Jingdao celebrated its 2,000 Years old existence, focusing on how the mythological Ying Emperor had united the Eight Tribes and with a remembrance ceremony of the rise of the Haman Emperor to power in South Batavia.
The political scene was dominated by an increased interest in foreign affairs: Diwang Chiang Shun intensively lobbied in favour of strengthening the USSO and increasing its influence both at home and abroad. It saw the admission of the Florian Republic (a nation which had grown out of a former eastern province which the Mingshi Emperor had evacuated), with explicit support of the Jingdaoese. This decision would later come back to bite the Jingdaoese in the ass, as the Florians proved to be distrustful allies. A surprise move of the Xianfa Emperor was to appoint the socialist Ming Wei as Steward (some say He just wanted to see what would happen with a socialist steward and a conservative Diwang).
The Hai Era
After the Xianfa Emperor had reached a higher spiritual level after days of intensive fasting, the First Prince was called back from Westbatavia to take the Throne as Hai Emperor. Having served as admiral of the Western Armada, had ensured the new Heavenly Light of the support of a majority of the Navy. At the same time, He could also call upon a dissatisfied army corps which had been neglected by the government's intensive Xindao Program (New Path Program) which aimed to strengthen the naval power to keep the coasts free from enemy invasion.
It was however His swift action through legislative means which took the administration by surprise: ther Imperial Household had successfully negotiated with several members of the Imperial Yuan and had created a rift between the conservative yuanist faction of the Kuominliantang and the Badao Faction (Way of the Hegemon). This non-violent way surprised the opposition, but was overshadowed by the death (according to some, an execution) of Steward Ming Wei. This led to mass strikes and eventually to violent protests and open revolts against the government in the Xianbei Province.
Faced with a divided Imperial Yuan, a socialist faction of whom several members now had chosen to support the rebel movement, and a nation faced with constitutional crisis, the Diwang requested the Court to disband the Yuan and call for a new election. The results were favourable for the reactionaries and conservatives, who blew away the socialist faction during the 1650 Yuan election. With the Badao Party and Kuominliantang holding a large majority, the Empire started concentrating on its foreign policy once again.
The constant struggle between the Shirerithian-led alliance SANE and Jingdao's own allies ended in the outbreak of hostilities over the small nation of Floria in 1653 AN. The War of Lost Brothers became a bloodbath for both sides and ethnic and social tensions were increasingly frequent during the fourth war year. The war eventually ended in a stalemate and an uneasy armistice existed from 1657 until an agreement with the Chidao Emperor could be reached in 1664 AN.
The Troubles of the Meiyo Era
The Meiyo Emperor had been one of the few nobles of the House of Erasmii who had actively participated in politics, next to the Heavenly Light. Her close position as sister of the occupant of the Heavenly Throne, made her both a dangerous and important asset of the Emperor in the national elections. Her reactionary party gained a majority in 1650 Yuan elections, but this was followed by a tot fragmentation in the 1657 elections. She eventually came to power when her brother, the Hai Emperor, died of a stray bullet during an incident near the palace gates.
With the legislation divided, a war which had brought only marginal victories, an undecided peace and the democratic experiment collapsing, the Meiyo Emperor felt forced to rely heavily on a small group of merchants. This group, influenced by Passio-Corum, heavily advocated the establishment of a Bassarid Federation between the two great powers. Heavy opposition led to an intervention of both the bureaucracy, Navy and Army, who sought to put the well-hidden son of the former Emperor on the Throne.
The coup, supported by even the Diwang Zhang San, restored imperial power. A crackdown on the political parties and its fiercest supporters eventually restored order. Massive budget cuts came to and end and large scale social programs were established.
The Chidao Era
The rise to power was relatively uneventful, considering the circumstances. The young prince, who was born after the death of His father, was kept from the public eye by his aunt. While no official sources could confirm if she truly was planning to have the boy succeed her, or simply kill him if he became too dangerous, is still a much discussed issue. The coup by a group of influential bureaucrats, navy and army officers ended the isolation of the young prince and put him on the Heavenly Throne in 1659 AN.
The Chadao Emperor's foreign policies, heavily influenced by the Army and bureaucrats (who sought to thwart naval influences, which had grown popular considerably after the Battle of Carama Bay during the War of Lost Brothers), focused on expansion on the mainland. This came at the cost of oversea territories: several non-Apollonian isles were evacuated and its Benacian lands (with exception of island of Wuqi) were donated to the newly established United Batavian States. His reign also saw a brief Hondonese insurgency in 1665 AN in which his nephew, the Hondonese Hoshasei Emperor was abducted. The reaction of his cabinet was swift: the emperor was retrieved safely and the Hondonese independence came to and end, while Hoshasei was appointed as governor of the region.
A peace agreement with Shireroth was eventually reached, after both parties recognised each other's spheres of influence. The hundred thousands death and stalemate during the War of Lost Brothers had brought the Imperial Courts in Shirekeep and Daocheng together in a desire for peace, or at least a short breathing pause. This action further hurt the influence of both the Army and Navy factions tremendously, and Diwang Zhang San successfully used this temporary weakness of both military arms to strengthen his - and the Guanchang's position at Court. The plan, eventually backfired, as the new focus on the Apollonian continent had upset the balance between Navy and Army: the growing power base of the Army soon threatened to overshadow that of the Guachang, making it necessary for Zhang San to ally with the Navy.
The lack of an official peace agreement with Natopia and increasing interference in the Florian Republic, along with interference in the Haifan Civil War on behalf of Passio-Corum and increasing Florian violations of the peace treaty concerning industrialisation, marked the beginning of another chapter in its conflict with the Raspur Pact. Nonetheless, with the Guanchang still in control of the Gong Suweiai, no serious action was undertaken to remilitarise the Forces at increased speed.
The Kalirion Fracture of Shireroth in 1671 AN was seen to many Jing politicians and people as a personal success of their Heavenly Light: not only had Chidao guarded the peace, but His Grand Secretariat had also focused its efforts in strengthening its industry. Since His predecessor, the government had increasingly pressured local gentry in abstaining from using their political power, while replacing old fuedal institutions with bureaucrats of both Jing as Kildarian descent. The Empire, now more centralised than ever, had prospered under the benevolent rule, while its traditional rival was collapsing into warring states. The long term of Zhang San, who became the longest serving Diwang since Ching Fong in 1600 AN, was also understood of a sign of Heavenly approval.
- See: Jingdaoese census for the latest demographic information.
Because of its location and composing a large part of the Apollonian continent, in combination with its long and turbulent history, the nation has very diverse demographics. While the Apollonian lands before the conquest by Kaiser Gaelen I and their integration into Shireroth were very diverse and small nations and petty squabbles between them made up an important part of their time, the people started identifying themselves with each other after many ages of Kildarian Ducal government. These effects are still in place: while you still find Dalmacijans, Blackrockians, etc., they will often refer to themselves as Kildarian.
Nonetheless, it's very likely that the many Kildarian groups come into conflict with each other. This has allowed the Jingdaoese government to act as mediator and keeper of the peace, which in turn has placed them in a very favourable power position.
This is clearly witnessed when looking to the numbers: while the Kildari still make up a shrinking majority (52,67%), it is the largest minority, the Jingdaoese (21,24%), who govern the lands. The third largest group, the Batavians (14,03%), also make up a very diverse people: they are all descendants of several waves of immigrants: some migrated to Kildare long before the independence of Jingdaoese Apollonia, others followed in later immigration waves. The first migration wave took place under the reign of the Dashi Emperor as he evacuated most of Batavia. A second wave took place during the reign of the Chidao Emperor as the United Batavian States gained independence and several groups desired to remain under His stable government.
Government and politics
The Chidao Emperor
Ministries & Secretariats:
The Heavenly Light
- See also: Heavenly Light
The formal structure of the government centered on the Emperor as the absolute ruler of the Empire. Still, the amount of power of each Emperor depends strongly on who sits on the Heavenly Eagle Throne. There is a subtle, but very important, difference between the several Emperors who have once ruled over the country. Traditionally, the Jing refer to the mythical Ying Emperor as their founding father and first Emperor, while the Mengjiang Emperor became the first Heavenly Light.
To foreigners it's sometimes hard to understand, but those who ascend the Throne will automatically be referred to as Emperor. However, only those blessed with being the reincarnation of one of the Prophets - or Sisera Herself - will hold the right to claim the title of Heavenly Light. The laws of the Empire provide no difference in privileges for both titles, but the influence the Heavenly Light has on public affairs easily beats that of a mere Emperor. The tradition in Jingdao prescribes that the Heavenly Light can easily ignore the laws and constitutions of His or Her ancestors and can even single-handedly change ancient rites. A simple Emperor also holds this power, but requires approval of priests to avoid angering the Heaven.
The story about the mythological birth of the Jingdaoese people talks about how they followed Sisera and Her descendants. With this, the role of the House of Erasmii is already strongly intertwined with the nation's own existence. Later, with the creation of the First Empire and the ascension of the Prophet Mordechai (who was posthumously named Mengjiang Emperor) to the Throne, the Erasmii formally began their leadership over the Jingdaoese successor Realms.
On certain occasions the people were not led by a member of the Erasmii Clan. Both Herman Civilis (Grand-Duke of Southbatavia), Miguel Windsor (Magister of the Church) Rollin the Conqueror and the Provisional Government of 1631 AN took up the duties to govern the country and pave the way, not as Emperors, but as a sort of temporary stewards. Herman Civilis and Rollin received the honourary title Pavers of the Way and are recognised as important historical and religious figures. The role of Yuan Windsor, who made an attempt to kidnap the Kaiming Emperor and rule the nation in his stead, is more dubious: he's seen as one who has heavily influenced both the young Emperor once He returned, as the nation's policies (as an internal weakness of disloyalty was proven, which convinced the government that there were still impure elements within its own people which had to be destroyed).
Emperors who ascend the Throne must undergo a trial of combat to proof their worth. Since the Third Empire, the Emperors descend into a labyrinth beneath the Catodral of Xiacheng, where mythical creatures lurk in the darkness. If the Emperor survives the proof and can return above the ground, He will truly hold the power which goes with His office.
Male Emperors are called with 'Ben Erasmus', while female rulers get the family name 'Bat Erasmus'. For example: Simon Ben Erasmus and Sisera Bat Erasmus. With their inauguration they also receive an Imperial name. For example, Heinrich Ben Erasmus became known as the Kattei Emperor (meaning 'Reborn').
- See also: Imperial Household
Responsible for the Imperial Family, its palaces and the personal guards. Falls under the Ministry but can not be controlled by the Minister and acts independent from it.
The Head Steward, in most cases a man who has surpassed the age of sixty, is in charge of the Household. Traditionally, he's chosen among the bound servants who have served in the Imperial Administration or served at the Heavenly Palace. He's not only responsible for the day-to-day affairs, the welcoming of important diplomats, but also in organising the Private Council.
- See also: Diwang
The Imperial Diwang is the presiding officer of the Grand Secretariat and is directly appointed by the emperor. It is the task of the diwang to coordinate the cooperation between the various ministries. The diwang translates the instructions of the Heavenly Light to bureaucratic policy. He is also responsible for the selection of new ministers though they are formally appointed by the emperor. While the position of Imperial Diwang is often seen as one of the most prestigious positions within the empire, it is also one of the most dangerous. Several diwangs in history who thought they could make policy without consulting with the emperor have found themselves placed in front of an execution squad.
The title itself goes back to the First Empire, and was changed many times. During the First and Second Era the title had a bad ring to it, because of the traitorous acts of Yuan Windsor. Diwang Yuan lured the Kaiming Emperor into an ambush in Southern Cibola, abducted him, and tried to rule in his place, keeping the future Ci Empress hostage in her own palace. During the Third Era, the title returned to common use once more.
The Diwang's importance grew steadily after the death of the Sheng Emperor. A harsh struggle for power between the three main factions - Navy, Army and the Bureaucrats - came to an end with the Xianfa Constitution, which introduced direct Diwang Elections. The first, and at the same time last, elected Diwang was Chiang Shun. His successor, Zhang San, was once again appointed by an Emperor, as it was felt to be too dangerous to keep the government apparatus hostage by easily influential forces.
Ministry of Truth
The Ministry of Truth, often handled by the Chancellor himself, holds one of the more important Secretariats, responsible for the cultural and educational development of the people.
- Secretariat of Rites: Responsible for ceremonies and the protection of the national culture.
- Secretariat of Propaganda: Responsible for controlling the media and bring the Truth to the People.
- Secretariat of Education: Responsible for educating the masses.
- Secretariat of Censor: Responsible for censorship and re-education of delinquents.
Ministry of Purity
The Ministry of Purity pursues the financial aspects of the state, together with the appointments. It also closely checks which individuals from the outside world enter the Empire.
- Secretariat of Revenue: Financial and economical affairs.
- Secretariat of Immigration: Responsible for immigration, visa and passport application.
- Secretariat of Appointments: Responsible for the appointment of military and civil personnel.
Ministry of Stability
The Ministry of Stability (formerly known as World Peace) has as goal to handle foreign affairs, seeks to coordinate and strengthen the Armed Forces of the Empire and its States. While handling justice, the Secretariat of Hanging, is not responsible for the Tegong, as that office acts independent from the Grand Secretariat.
- Secretariat of Slaying: Handles the armed forces.
- Secretariat of Sinking: Responsible for the coordination of the State Fleets.
- Secretariat of Hanging: Brings swift justice.
- Secretariat of Talking: Handles foreign affairs.
The Jingdaoese have experimented with several forms of governance throughout the ages. The Jingbuist Soviet of the First and Second Empire, consisting of one party to govern the nation was replaced by a more liberal' National Diet in 1632 AN. This bicameral legislature was divided into two chambers: the Imperial Yuan and the Seanad. The first one replaced an earlier predecessor, the Imperial Assembly, while the latter one revived the old Kildarian-Apollonian Seanad which had long acted as provincial assembly since the take-over of Kildare and its integration into Jingdao.
This bicameral system still lives on in the current political system, which was established in the 1670's during the Chidao era. The Gong Suweiai, known as Public Council, was established: nobles, public servants, important officials,... all were handpicked by the Emperor to serve the Realm and act as representative and advisor. This made the already existing power struggle between three factions very apparant: both the Guachang (Bureaucrats), Kantai-ha (Navy) and Gunbatsu (Army) were openly trying to gain favour from the Heavenly Court.
Real power, however, resides within the Private Council, known as Sifang Suweiai. While holding no formal power, it is composed of the most important and influential people from the Realm. From the shadows it governs the nation with an iron fist and influences the Grand Secretariat day-to-day affairs and interferes in its decision making. Titles of documents in the Council are made viewable for the public, and for that reason were often made misleading on purpose.
The title of Grandsire was once used by the prime minister of the Princes of Aryasht. During the era of the Apollonian Republic it was the title of the president of the Provincial Assembly. Afterwards it was adopted by the Jingdaoese as a title granted by the Emperor as one of the highest honours that a person could receive. The person owning this title acted as vice-president during meetings of the Clans in case of the the Heavenly Light's absence.
Nowadays the title is still sometimes used to refer to the First Prince or Princess, who is most likely to ascend the Throne.
The Jing Dynasty reached its largest extent on the Apollonian mainland during the second half of 17th century (Norton Calender), when it ruled the so-called Fourteen Provinces. The Empire once connected the western coast of the continent with the east coast, claiming most of what once had been Antican territory. The Destruction by the Obedience Machine in 1631 AN ended the Emperor's (loose) reign over the tribal communities and forced the government to focus on its older core lands.
The loss of the provinces in the east were used as an opportunity by the Zettai Emperor to promote colonisation of the lands north of Xianbei Province. Between 1631 and 1634 AN large groups of Batavian emigrants from the Benacian continent sought a new and better life in the Jinkeai Province, which got the name New Batavia.
1642 saw the annexation of the Xianxia Province (then Shenxianxia), or the Sheng Frontiers, and the Julang Province during the reign of the Sheng Emperor. It became the home of banished criminals, adventurers and re-education camps. The Julang Province would later be lost, as the Mingshi Emperor used the funds of its administration and defences to fund the creation of an oversea religious colony (of which Shenximeng, or St. Simon) remains a remnant. From the ashes of this territory, the Florian Republic and the Hondonese Empire grew.
Lanuria was annexed to protect its northern shipping lanes right before the outbreak of the War of Lost Brothers, and the Chidao Emperor successfully pushed eastwards, adding the tribes of the Mengtian Province to its core lands.
The Jingdaoese Empire was strongly centralised, demanding that governors and governor-generals ruled their respective territories from the capital of Daocheng itself. This rule to avoid that a governor would rebel, as he and his family were safely watched within the perimeters of the Imperial Capital, at the same time weakened the effectiveness of the regions. The oversea territories, with their distinct cultures and habits, benefited from rulers who knew their local practises. Jingdaoese governors had, however, little time to get used to them before getting recalled to the capital.
Therefore, the Empire was divided into Jingdao Proper (or better known as the Fourteen Provinces), which kept their Provinces and Districts. The Apollonian islands east of Liao Province, with important religious and cultural importance to the Jing, became known as the Three Far Eastern Territories. Other oversea territories received the blessing of the Court to experiment with their local government. Those regions received sufficient autonomy to act more or less independent towards the Empire, in return for trade advantages, taxes,... which directly went into the Court's treasury.
Foreign Relations and Military
- Read more about the foreign affairs: Imperial Tributary System
"The Jingdaoese People is a Race which has travelled across the world. Born from the ashes of the ancient world under the Ying Emperor, when men dwelt into caves and marshes; having fought for liberty under the Mengjiang, when we acted as mere servants of the Batavii; challenging Fate by returning under the Duchang and - eventually - finding our current homestead under the Haigui. Our history is long and ancient, just like its People. We are are never truly bound to the lands we were born as we will follow our Heavenly Light when this is desired from Him. Nonetheless, we aren't a people who want to be bullied by the big boys. Alexandria blamed us for their own greed, Stormark blamed us for their own decadence, Shireroth blamed us for their own dissension and corruption. We merely show them the ugly truth, and therefore we are sometimes despised. Apollonia must therefore remain a beacon of hope, and not the plaything of those imperialists. Stable nations on Micras, befriended and in harmony with the Jingdaoese Realm: that's what we seek."—Xa Tang, 'Letter from an Envoy to the Meiyo Emperor', 1658 AN
The foreign contacts between Jingdao and other nations has, throughout its long history, held mixed results. Since its establishment, the Jingdaoese people have seen themselves blessed (or cursed, according to some heretics) with the divine duty to unite Micras under their Heavenly Banner and spread the enlightenment of the Catologian Faith to all corners of the world. This brought the First Empire (located on Cibola) in a direct conflict with the Alexandrians (which was called Purple Horde) when they decided to close the Strait of Barbary for any foreign shipment if no heavy tax was paid.
Later on, during the Second Empire, the Jingdaoese were actively involved in assisting the Myksos Dynasty in Kildare (back then a part of Shireroth). With the help of the Tegong the feudal Kildarian society was slowly transformed into a more centralist (but still very backward) state. The Mango Throne saw begrudgingly how their eastern Duchy became more and more dependant on the Jingdaoese and took several countermeasures. When Kildare wanted to join a military pact, the League of Nations for the Advancement of Purity, the Shirerithian government interfered and won the case in court. Some Tegong officers were deported, but the organisation kept active in secret and the frustration with the Mango Court grew.
During the Kildarian Revolution of 1617 there was no official support from Jingdao for the independence of Kildare (which would become the Apollonian Republic of Shireroth's East) , but it was blamed to have had a hand in it. This eventually seemed to have a ring of truth in it, as the Republic was annexed into the Third Empire in 1623ANC by the Haigui Emperor.
The diplomatic history of Jingdao has therefore always been one of indirect conflict and a certain distrust towards (and from) the great powers of Micras. It shaped the policy of self-reliance and dominance. Throughout the years, it tried to keep peaceful relationships with its neighbours. This led to the Apollonia Doctrine, which pushed for the establishment of the Blackrock Pact, in 1636 AN. Gerenia, the Brettish Isles, Calbion and Jingdao formed, together, a military organisation to support each other in the wars to come. Ultimately, the cooperation was never really tight, which many officers and diplomats blamed upon the flaws in the Jingdaoese diplomatic model (which often viewed other nations as lesser partners, instead of equals). The Pact ultimately failed.
However, under the reign of the Mingshi Emperor Jingdao joined a closer union, the Union of States around the Sovereign Oceans, with Passio-Corum, Gerenia, Craitland and Xang Muang. This organisation was not only a military one, but also placed heavy focus on economical and cultural cooperation and development.
The Jingdaoese use the words 'Xing' and 'Hun' in the diplomatic theatre: Xing are nations pure enough to cooperate with, while Hun nations are seen as barbarian and potential enemies.
Traditionally, diplomatic contacts were made by paying tribute to the Heavenly Light. This popular custom, mainly in use during the First Empire, is still practised occasionally, but to a lesser extent.
The military of the Empire could be divided in two more or less independent main branches: the land and naval forces. While the supreme commander of those forces is the Heavenly Light (for the land forces He holds the title of Caudillo, a remnant from merging the Jingdaoese troops with the old Apollonian Army), real command lies in the hands of Generals and the Ministry of Stability.
Between 1631 and 1636 AN the States which made up the Empire received the liberty to built and expand their own military force. Immediately, a naval expansion began between the States, as global threat was mainly coming from oversea empires. With the end of the States and re-centralisation, the naval armament stayed an important issue to the military budget.
The main branches are divided in several minor branches:
|Imperial Jingdaoese Navy||Ministry of Stability||351,045 active duty personnel|
|Imperial Armed Forces||Ministry of Stability||952,045 active duty personnel|
|Young Wandering Society||Ministry of Stability||26,850,000|
|Magical Knights||Catodral of Daocheng||300||Ceremonial guard dating back to Kildarian times, guard Catodral of Daocheng.|
|Five Banners||Imperial Household||500,000|
|Tegong||Imperial Household||100,000||Intelligence and obedience service|
|Imperial Jingdaose Headquarters||Imperial Household||10,000|
|Imperial Jingdaoese Air Force||Imperial Household||32,000|
|Grand Holy Order of the Temple of Cato||Monastic Order||5,000||Monastic Order founded to preserve and defend the Catologian Faith|
Young Jingdaoese children learn to love and protect their home from the very beginning. Becoming a good citizen means serving the country and its military with any means possible. To prepare them for a potentially harsh life they are strongly advised and pressured into joining the Young Wandering Society, a youth association. Not only war games, but also survival games and reconstruction is thought to them from a young age.
Those who, according to the supervisors, have the capability to become fine officers, are sent to the military academies across the country to become Imperial Kadetten. The most promising (or influential ones) end up in Blackrock Military Academy, the most prestigious military institution, which founding dates back to the independent Republic of Blackrock and is located in Blackrock Nua in the west of the Zhou of Heliu.
Jingdaoese are obligated to join the army when they reach the age of 18, but thanks to the large number of volunteers, those obligations are never truly enforced. The non-Jingdaoese population is often free to chose, but gets discriminated on the labour market when it decides to not join military service. Therefore, it's a very common practice among almost all Kildari.
In the Apollo era, Soloralism (with its many cults) was widespread and popular among the masses. While minor fights were usual among those sects, this was a peaceful religious period. The arrival of Kaiser Gaelen I and the integration of the remnants of the Union of Apollo States into Shireroth (and with that the creation of Kildare) brought the arrival of a new religion from the West with it: Cedrism. While not enormously popular, Cedrists were fervent believers and soon came into conflict with several of the more extreme Soloralist sects. Several times this led to crackdowns by the Kaisers, which in turn led to increased hostility from the Soloralists.
The Kildarian New Era (3005 ASC and onwards) brought forth a new time of peace: Soloralists lived peaceful together with Cedrists (of which there weren't many left) and the god Sakat became popular, even with the Soloralist followers.
In that same period, the arrival of Batavian immigrants (and later South Batavians) led to the spreading of Catologism. The well organised and devote followers of Catologism spread the faith and made it into the most popular religion around the beginning of the 6th millennium. Unrest and difficulties followed upon arguments between Soloralists and Catologians, which made it hard for many rulers to reach a satisfying compromise between both camps.
Religious compromises were, however, roughly pushed aside when Taodosius I took the Ducal Throne and announced a purge against Soloralism. Followed by this announcement, former Soloralist temples (of which many had already been fallen in disarray) were placed under the management of the Catologian Church. The Imperial Catodral of Apollo City is the best example of this new religious policy.
During the Revolution of 5552 the Catologian Church was the one pushed aside by the authorities. Groups of dissatisfied people saw in it a way of oppression of the people and in several cities throughout the new Republic people attacked churches and temples. Some of them were burned down, but most possessions were confiscated by the new republican government and the profits were used to pay for the massive modernisation attempts of the armed forces.
With the integration of the Kildarian territories into Jingdao, the secularisation came to abrupt halt. While Jingdaoese rulers were relatively open towards other faiths, there were aggressive campaigns to convert the population to the Jingdaoese version of Catologism.
The Heavenly Light was seen as the sole representative of the Gods on Micras and should therefore be worshipped. This paved the way for the government policy of Tianchaodao (The Way of the Empire) in 6316 ASC, which taught that complete submission to the divine Heavenly Light is the only road to salvation and the only way to server the Gods.
At this moment, the Tianchaodao is the sole recognised and most widespread practised religion in the country. It's often seen as a way to unite the many ethnic groups under the same banner.
- See also: Education in Jingdao
Education is an important part of Jingdaoese society and even mentioned as one of the Five Principles of Jingbuism. The focus lies on raising the youth as as useful citizens for the empire. All students are therefore expected to be able to find employment after they finish their studies and to be able to serve as soldier in the Jingdaoese armed forces, or serve in a function which could aid the military in one way or another.
It is obligated to go to school from four till at least eighteen year. No child is allowed to have private schooling, as it is viewed as anti-social and not patriotic (school activities are after all meant to strengthen the unity between the pupils).
The principal educational emphasis lies on the great importance of traditional national political values, worship of the emperor, reading, writing and arithmetic. The education system promotes traditional Jingdaoese values in the hierarchical nature of human relations, with the State and its Government superior to the individual, and the Emperor superior to the State. The educational system is used for supporting the militarized state and preparing future soldiers.
The government publishes official text books for all levels of student, and reinforce that with cultural activities and seminars. Children who don't perform in those activities are frowned upon by both teachers and pupils. The pupils who, at the age of 14, show much promise are sent to special military Imperial Kadetten schools to be educated to become officer.
Apart from indoctrination in nationalism and religion, children and school students receive military drills (survival, first aid). These are taken further by the Young Wandering Society. College students are trained for home defence and regular military units. Young women are seen as equals of the guys. Both receive first aid training.
The economy of the Empire has been very diverse, thanks to its large size and extending from mountain ranges to valleys and from lakes to seas. The Antya region (the Zhou of Zhongji and Heliu) has since the ancient days hold a monopoly on the production and distribution of excellent wine (Antyan wine). The Vervoll Region (west Heliu and South East Qaoshan) is responsible for most of its wood and other natural resources which can be found in its vast forests, while the Dalmacijan Region (Bangou and Qianjin) is famous for its mines, both gold and iron are present in the soil in large quantities.
the Zhou of Jinkeai inherited large industrial complexes and a huge labour pool. Together with the Norfolk Isles, they are the main distributor of vessels and other military materials, thanks to companies like Sokoku Industries (formerly known as Heimat Industries). The Norfolkian city Acadeimos became a major player in the chemical industry thanks to the state funded Chemical Research Facility .
Visitors to Jingdao will notice that local currencies can differ from Province to Province, or even from County to County. While there is only one national currency, the Kala, which was adopted by the government from the Apollonian-Kildarian administration instead of using the original Frank (a Southbatavian currency), it is not uncommon to see people trade - mostly in remote villages - with other means. However, this practice is slowly disappearing.
Trade contacts were limited before the establishment of the USSO Common Market, as only a few ports were open to the outside world. The Maritime Apollonian Customs Service had the responsibility to protect the economy from an overdose of foreign products and acted as a watchdog, until this task was taken over by the Haijing, a coast guard without regional differences. The City of Tyrenia, Port Nevermore and Apollo City are the three largest trade ports.
National policies from the Grand Secretariat tend to focus on the expansion of the war industry, rather than supporting the luxury goods sector. The Jingdaoese Common Market represents the Empire and its most important companies on the USSO Common Market.