Toshaism in Sanama
Based on the political philosophy of Malliki Tosha (1517 – 1602), Toshaism in Sanama is a Socialist ideology gaining in prominence in the early 1700's, providing the intellectual basis for a popular revolutionary movement primarily aimed at Humanism. The ideology promotes Communism, internationalism, solidarity, the collective ownership of the means of production and human rights based on intelligence and sentience, not species. It is therefore also often named Universalist Toshaism.
Toshaism influenced the Elwynnese Workers' Party greatly through the chairmanship of Malliki Nur Pinito (Malliki Tosha's nephew), especially during the time of the Democratic People's Republic of Elwynn. As such, it has also influenced, in kind, the the socialism of the Communist Workers' Party in Hurmu, and through the socialist government of Hurmu (1719–1720), also the Social and Democratic Party of Hurmu.
Summary of Toshaism
Toshaism refers to the political ideology and movement inspired by the teachings of Malliki Tosha, which gained significant popularity in the early 1720s in Sanama. Toshaism emerged as a response to the prevailing political and social conditions in Sanama during the early 18th century following the failure of the Sanamati Democratic Party to retain power following corruption and arms trade scandals. Malliki Tosha, a charismatic and influential figure in the 16th and 17th centuries, laid the foundation for this ideology through his writings and speeches, which called for national self-determination, independent foreign policy, workers' self-management, socialism, and the promotion of equality and social justice.
The teachings of Malliki Tosha emphasized the importance of national self-determination, asserting the right of every nation to shape its own destiny without external interference. This concept resonated strongly among the Sanaman population, who sought to assert their sovereignty and cultural identity. Toshaism also advocated for an independent foreign policy, promoting non-alignment and self-reliance while avoiding entanglement in the power struggles of larger nations and blocs. Central to Toshaism was the idea of workers' self-management and socialism. Malliki Tosha argued for the empowerment of the working class, urging the establishment of systems that would enable workers to control and manage the means of production. This appealed to the working class and marginalized groups in Sanama who were grappling with socio-economic inequalities and exploitation. Still fifty years after independence, the entrenched power structures of Shirerithian rule, such as land ownership, common law and linguistic and cultural imperialism, had only partially been dismantled. Due to this failure by successive socialist governments, the emphasis of Toshaism on the principles of equality and social justice resonated with the working masses. It called for the elimination of societal hierarchies, discrimination, and oppression, striving for a more egalitarian and inclusive society. Unity and brotherhood were emphasized, aiming to foster solidarity among diverse groups within Sanama.
In the early 1720s, Toshaism experienced a surge in popularity throughout Sanama. The prevailing socio-economic conditions, coupled with the charismatic leadership of Toti Lampa, contributed to its rapid growth. Toshaist organizations and study groups were established, including the Sanaman Toshaist Party (STP), worker unions and associations, Toshaist youth organizations, and women's groups advocating for gender equality. However, the rise of Toshaism also led to political divisions within the movement. Various Toshaist parties emerged, each with their own interpretations and approaches to implementing Toshaist principles. Notable parties included the Sanaman Progressive Party (SPP), Workers' Revolutionary Front (WRF), Agrarian Reform Coalition (ARC), and Intellectuals for Socialism (IFS).
Toshaism's popularity had a profound impact on Sanaman society and politics. It generated grassroots activism, empowering workers and marginalized groups to demand their rights and fight against socio-economic injustices. Land reform initiatives were undertaken to address agricultural disparities, and significant proposals were made in women's liberation, gender equality and LGBTQ+ rights. These however failed to gain traction in parliament, still dominated by the center-right coalition between the Agrarian League and Sanaman People's Party. As a consequence, the United Revolutionary Front, under the leadership of Toti Lampa, announced their intention to participate in the 1723 Sanaman general elections.
The Teachings of Malliki Tosha
Core principles and ideology
Malliki Tosha, the influential figure behind Toshaism, laid out a set of core principles and an overarching ideology that formed the foundation of this political movement. These principles encompassed national self-determination, non-alignment and independent foreign policy, workers' self-management and socialism, as well as equality and social justice. Malliki Tosha's teachings resonated strongly with the Sanaman population, shaping the ideological landscape of Toshaism and garnering widespread support.
Malliki Tosha emphasized the principle of national self-determination, asserting the right of each nation to determine its own destiny without external interference. This concept recognized the sovereignty and cultural identity of Sanama, enabling the nation to shape its political, economic, and social trajectory according to its own interests and aspirations.
Non-alignment and independent foreign policy
Toshaism promoted an independent foreign policy, advocating for non-alignment and self-reliance. Malliki Tosha called for each developing nation to avoid entanglement in the power struggles of larger nations and to pursue its own interests on the international stage. This approach aimed to safeguard autonomy, enabling nations to make decisions that best served its people, free from external pressures.
Central to Toshaism was the principle of workers' self-management and socialism. Malliki Tosha championed the empowerment of the working class, advocating for systems that would enable workers to control and manage the means of production. This ideology aimed to create a more equitable society by distributing resources and opportunities more fairly, prioritizing the interests and welfare of the working class.
Toshaism placed a strong emphasis on equality and social justice. Malliki Tosha called for the elimination of discrimination, oppression, and social hierarchies. His teachings emphasized equal opportunities and fair treatment for all individuals, regardless of their background or social status. The aim was to create a society where everyone had the chance to prosper and contribute, fostering a sense of unity and solidarity among the population. This also extended to non-human but sentient and intelligent species, contrasting Toshaism with Humanism.
Emphasis on unity and brotherhood
Within the ideology of Toshaism, Malliki Tosha placed a significant emphasis on unity and brotherhood. He recognized the importance of fostering solidarity and cooperation among diverse groups within each nation to achieve social and political transformation. Toshaism aimed to transcend divisions based on ethnicity, religion, or social status, emphasizing the need for unity among the population. Malliki Tosha believed that by standing together, the people could overcome internal divisions and work collectively towards a better future.
Foundation and Expansion of Toshaism in Sanama
Historical context in Sanama in the early 1720s
Sanama, at that time, experienced significant political, social, and economic dynamics that contributed to the growth of Toshaism as a prominent political movement. Sanama in the early 1720s was marked by a period of social and economic inequality, as well as political unrest. The prevailing socio-economic conditions were characterized by a stark divide between the wealthy elites and the working class, with the latter facing exploitation and limited opportunities for upward mobility. This socio-economic disparity fueled discontent and a growing desire for change among the marginalized and working-class populations. The political landscape was dominated by traditional parties that were perceived by many as corrupt and disconnected from the needs and aspirations of the common people. This disillusionment with the existing political establishment created fertile ground for alternative ideologies and movements to gain traction. The influence of Malliki Tosha's writings and speeches grew as they reached a broader audience. His ideas offered a sense of hope and a vision for a more just and equitable society, capturing the imagination of many Sanamans who yearned for change.
Furthermore, the intellectual climate of the time was characterized by a growing interest in socialist and anti-imperialist ideologies. Malliki Tosha's teachings aligned with these emerging intellectual currents, providing an ideological framework that resonated with progressive-minded individuals who sought to challenge existing power structures. Malliki Tosha's emphasis on workers' rights, land reform, and social justice appealed to the working class and marginalized groups who experienced the brunt of socio-economic inequalities. Toshaism provided a rallying point for these groups to organize and demand better conditions, leading to the formation of various Toshaist organizations and study groups.
Emergence of Various Toshaist Parties in the 1720s
Within the growing popularity of Toshaism in Sanama during the early 1720s, the movement witnessed the emergence of various Toshaist parties, each with distinct interpretations and approaches to implementing Toshaist principles. These parties reflected the political divisions and diversity of thought within the Toshaist movement, contributing to the vibrant political landscape of the time.
Political divisions within the Toshaist movement
As Toshaism gained momentum, ideological and strategic differences arose among its supporters. These divisions stemmed from varying interpretations of Toshaist principles and the best approach to achieve the goals of the movement. While all parties shared a commitment to the core tenets of Toshaism, differing perspectives on tactics and priorities led to the formation of distinct political factions.
Factors contributing to party fragmentation
Several factors contributed to the fragmentation of Toshaist parties in Sanama during this period. Firstly, the dynamic and evolving nature of Toshaism as an ideology meant that interpretations and priorities could differ among its adherents. Secondly, disagreements on specific policy issues, such as land reform, workers' rights, or foreign relations, further fueled party divisions. Additionally, personal ambitions and rivalries among leaders and key figures within the movement also played a role in the emergence of different Toshaist parties.
Description of the different Toshaist parties
The following are some of the prominent Toshaist parties that emerged in Sanama during the 1720s, each representing a distinct ideological perspective and approach to advancing Toshaist principles.
Sanaman Progressive Party (SPP): The SPP advocated for a moderate approach to implementing Toshaist ideals, focusing on gradual reforms and cooperation with other political factions. They emphasized building alliances with other progressive groups to achieve broader societal change.
Workers' Revolutionary Front (WRF): Founded by Toti Lampa, the most prominent Toshaist intellectual and leader, the WRF took a more radical stance, prioritizing workers' rights and advocating for swift and revolutionary changes to the socio-economic system. They called for a complete overhaul of the existing power structures and the establishment of a socialist society through mass mobilization.
Agrarian Reform Coalition (ARC): The ARC placed a particular emphasis on land reform and agricultural issues. They aimed to address rural inequalities and promote sustainable farming practices, seeking to empower farmers and improve their livelihoods through comprehensive agrarian reforms.
Intellectuals for Socialism (IFS): The IFS consisted of intellectuals, academics, and professionals who sought to promote Toshaist principles through intellectual discourse, education, and policy research. They focused on developing strategies for the implementation of socialist ideals in various sectors of society.
These parties, while sharing a common ideological foundation, differed in their strategies, priorities, and approaches to realizing the goals of Toshaism. They contributed to a vibrant and diverse political landscape within the Toshaist movement, reflecting the range of perspectives and strategies embraced by Toshaist supporters in Sanama. These four parties formed the United Revolutionary Front in the 1723 general elections.
Long-term implications and ongoing legacy of Toshaism
The ideology of Toshaism and its popularity in Sanama during the early 1720s had far-reaching implications and left a lasting legacy on the nation's socio-political landscape.
The rise of Toshaism brought about significant social and political transformations in Sanama. Grassroots activism and worker empowerment became prominent features of the socio-political landscape as Toshaist principles inspired workers to demand their rights and fight against socio-economic injustices. Land reform initiatives were proposed to address agricultural disparities, aiming to create a more equitable distribution of land and resources. Women's liberation, gender equality and LGBTQ+ rights also gained momentum under the influence of Toshaist ideals, leading to proposals for advancing women's rights and empowerment.
In the realm of foreign policy, Toshaism instilled a spirit of independence and non-alignment. The purpose of an independent foreign policy was to allow the nation to forge its own path on the international stage, prioritizing its own interests and avoiding entanglement in power struggles among larger nations. The growth of Toshaism also transformed the immediate political landscape. The principles of national self-determination, workers' self-management, socialism, and equality appealed to a large section of Sanaman society, especially the working class, still living with the imperialist heritage from Shirerithian rule. The ideas propagated by Malliki Tosha and the emergence of various Toshaist parties became a catalyst and inspiration for progressive movements and ideologies in Sanama.