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Crandish language

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The Crandish language (Krantisk) is the language of the now dead country of Cranda. These days it is spoken by scattered communities in the Green of northern Apollonia, as well as in pockets in Hurmu (both Lontinien and Lake District) and Lac Glacei.

This article is adapted from Te Nu Krantisk Grammatik by Johanns fonn Klosso.

See also Vocabulary

Phonology and Orthography

Letter/digraph Apollonia Hurmu
a /ɑ/~/ɑː/ /a/~/aː/
ä /e/~/eː/ /ɛ/~/ɛː/
ai /ai/
äi /ei/ /ɛi/
au /aʊ/
b /b/
c /k/
ch /x/
d /d/
e /e/ ~ /eː/
ei /ei/
f /f/~/v/ /f/
g /g/
h /h/
i /ɪ/~/iː/
ie /iː/ /ɪə/
j /j/
k /k/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
ng /ŋ/
o /ʌ/~/ɔ:/ /ɔ/~/o:/
oi /oi/ /ø/~/ø:/
p /p/
r /r/
s /z/ /s/
sd /zd/ /st/
sk /ʃ/ /sk/
ß /s/
ss /s/
st /st/
t /t/
tsk /tʃ/ /(t)sk/
u /ʊ/~/u:/ /ɵ/~/ʉ:/
ü /y/~/y:/
v /v/~/f/ /v/
w /v/ /w/
y /y/~/y:/
z /ts/


Noun cases (Heeachvurtgräder)

Crandish has four cases, nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. This section will outline the endings for each case, and the occasions in which each is used. Plurals are covered after the singular rules. Adjectives affecting the noun are also in these cases, but follow slightly different rules. Nominative: This case is used primarily for the subject of a sentence. It takes no ending. It is also used for predicate nominative, so the sentence Eck bam te mann ("I am the man") is all in nominative. The verbs vesan and virtan both cause a predicate nominative.


This case is formed by adding –e to the end of the noun and its adjectives. The definite article singular changes from te to ter. If a noun or one of its adjectives ends with a vowel in the nominative case then the vowel is replaced by –e. It is used for the direct object of the sentence, and certain prepositions govern the accusative case: turch, för, buton, anjee, unter, abbuda, umbi, chvanne (through, for, without, against, around, around, until), meaning that a noun with these prepositions in front of it becomes accusative.


This case is formed by adding –o to the end of the noun and its adjectives. The definite article singular changes from te to tas. If the noun or one of its adjectives ends in a vowel it is replaced by –o. This case is used for indirect objects, and the following propositions govern the dative case: aut, auter, boi, mitt, afder, ssoid, fonn, fomm, duu, ad (out, outside, by, with, after, since, of, from, to, at). One verb uses the dative case, and require no subject; tynkan ("to seem to") Mer tynkt "It seems to me," (it being understood that the subject is it, subjects can be used though, they always go after this verb).


This case is formed by adding –s to the noun and its adjectives, nouns and adjectives that already end in s or z or add –es. An archaic version of the genitive case added –ess after s or z, which is still in use in some areas. The definite article singular becomes tsess. It is used to show possession. Tsess manns auto aakt anjee ties fämnens huze (The man’s car drives into (against) the women’s house). The following propositions govern the genitive case: sdadd, drod, on, of, veggen (instead of, in spite of, during, during, because of).

The following propositions govern either the accusative or dative case: inn, an, upp, öber, unter, hint, onemenn, for, bitvisk (in, on, up, over/above, under, behind, alongside, before, between), depending on how they are used.


Nominative Plurals

There are four plural endings in Crandish, -er, -n, -en and –ar. –En is added if the word ends in the vowels long e, i, u, y, ü, o, or ö, and if the word ends with the the suffix –skaff. –Er is used for nouns ending in consonants and diphthongs, and –n for nouns ending in the vowels a and short e. –Ar is used when the word is multi-syllable, and ends in –r, -l, or –n. The word then loses the vowel before the final consonant. Umlauts are added where possible to plural words, with the exception of those that take the –ar ending, in the first syllable, unless the word has a suffix, in which case the umlauts are placed there. The vowels a, o, u, and the diphthong ai are the only vowels that receive diphthongs. In compound nouns the second noun of the compound gets umlauts. Bok-> Böker. Skool-> Sköoler. Skoolbok-> Skoolböker. Bokskool-> Boksköoler. Tai-> Täier. Karlskaff-> Karlskäffen. Guta-> Gütan. Fater-> Fatrar. Dalar-> Dalrar. Beskunigerr-> Beskunigrar

Accusative Plurals

The accusative endings are: -re, -ne, and –ne, -are. Bökre, Täire, Karlskäffne, Gütane, Fatrare, Dalrare, Beskunigrare

Dative Plurals

The dative plurals are: -re, -no, -no -aro. Bökro, Täiro, Karlskäffno, Gütano. ====Genitive Plurals==== The genitive plurals are: -ers, -ns, -ens -ars. Bökers, Täiers, Karlskäffens, Gütans.

Case table

Nominative singular ends with Accusative (s.) Dative (s.) Genitive (s.) Nominative (pl.) Accusative (pl.) Dative (pl.) Genitive (pl.)
The letter a -e -o -s -n -ne -no -ns
The letter e (when short) -e -o -s -n -ne -no -ns
The letter -e (when long), -i, -u, -y, , -o, -e -o -s -en -ne -no -ens
A diphthong -e -o -s -er -re -ro -ers
The digraph -ng -e -o - es -en -ne -no -ens
The suffix skaff -e -o -es -en -ne -no -ens
The letter -s, diagraph -sk, or letter -z -e -o -ess -er -re -ro -ers
The letter r, l, or n -e -o -s -ar -are -aro -ars
Some other consonant -e -o -s -er -re -ro -ers

Noun–adjective compounds

In most cases the noun and other noun, or noun and adjective are merely joined together. The adjective will always go first, however based on where the nouns are placed can change the meaning. The one exception to the rule is the Crandish noun metv means "middle". For compounds it becomes the basic adjective met, however if the noun it is being compounded with begins with a vowel it becomes mettel. So "the Middle East" is te Metteleesde but the middle of the road is te metvei.


Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
a, an ainz ainze ainzo ainzes
some vaa vaar vaas ves
no (singular) ne ner nas nes
no (plural) nie nier nias nies
the (singular) te ter tas tsess
the (plural= tie tier tias ties
this tiis tiiser tiisas tiises
this tas taser tsas tases
these tees teeser teesas teeses
that tad tader tadas tads
that jein jeiner jeinas jeins
those tos toser tosas toses


Crandish is a language with “natural gender” meaning that the only things that use the pronouns for he or she are things that actually are masculine or feminine. It has two forms of you, one informal singular, the other formal singular and plural, and informal plural.

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
I eck meck mer min
You (singular informal) tau teck tir tin
He hes hesk hesk hesn
She her herk herk hern
One maan maane maano maans
It chii chimm chir chiin
Everyone alk alke alko alks
Anyone einje einje einjo einjes
Someone vaa vaahe vaaho vaasess
No-one nemaan nemaane nemaano nemaans
Nothing nechtz nechtze nechtzo nechtzes
Who vaz van vam vas
We vit unz unz unzer
You (plural, singular formal) üviz üvun üvun üvin
They tei teim temm teir

Adjectives and adverbs (Jedallengvürter unt Verbjedallengvürter )

Adjectives in Crandish usually have one of the following endings: -ik, -lick, -az, -isk, -a, i/ii/ie, –e. All adjectives are put into the plural by adding –en. Certain adjectives have special rules governing them. Comparatives are done by adding –ör, superlatives by adding –esde. Adverbs usually end in –ig.

Ends with Nominative (s.) Accusative (s) Dative (s.) Genitive (s.) Nominative (pl) Accusative (pl.) Dative (pl.) Genitive (pl.)
Consonant -e -o -es -en -ne -no -ens
-ik -ik -ike -iko -iks -iken -ikne -ikno -ikens
-lick -lick -licke -licko -licks -licken -lickne -lickno -lickens
-az -az -aze -azo -azes -azen -azne -azno -azens
-e -e -e -o -es -en -ne -no -ens
-a -a -e -o -as -an -ane -ano -ans
-i -i -je -jo -ies -in -ine -ino -ins
-ii -ii -je -jo -iis -iin -iine -iino -iins
-ie -ie -je -jo -ies - ien -iene -ieno -iens
-isk -iske -isko -iskes -iskes -isken -iskne -iskno -iskens
-ör -ör -re -ro -örs -örn -örne -örno -örns
-esde -esde -esde -esdo -esdes -esden -esdne -esdno -esdens