|Largest Cities:||Carol Stream|
|Number of citizens:||N/A|
|Number of active citizens:||1|
|Date founded:||July 29, 2006|
|Government:||Passasian Regional Government (PRG)|
|National animal:||White-Faced Ferret|
|Map versions:||9.4 - ?|
Passas is a country located in the tropical plains region of Southwestern Keltia, in the region known as Pallisica. Passas is a member of the Commonwealth of Hamland. It is directly bordered by the Alexandrian state of Corcovado and Santander to the South, and the Hammish states of Israat and San Luis to the North and East. To the West is the Strait of Chelkra.
As the birthplace of the Passasian Economic Model, Passas is the second largest economy in the Commonwealth of Hamland, second only to the Hammish government itself. As of 5224 ASC the Passasian Regional Government ranks the 7th largest SCUE affiliated economy. Though the nation was at one point invested in each of SCUE's major markets, today Passas is almost solely invested in the HAM50. Passas' leading industries include shipping and banking. As of 5224, its largest company is Bay of Bel Air.
The history of Passas is long and complicated. As Queen Mina said in her coronation address, in 5106:
"Today, our nation turns 2,556 years old. 2,556 years since the founding of the Republic. 2,106 years since the fall of the Republic. 1,787 years since Passas won it's independence from Gralus. 1,472 years since our nation collapsed following it's bid for independence from Craitland. For 966 years, Passas has existed as a member of the Hammish Commonwealth. Three kings have been coronated before today, with the latest being my father. Today, I become the first queen of Passas. I am proud to become your queen. Proud, but humbled. Humbled, but not intimidated. Not intimidated, because our country is strong."
The Republic of Passas (2549 ASC - 3000 ASC)
The nation of Passas first appeared in Southwestern Keltia in the year 2,549 ASC. Little is known of the Republic except that it attempted to foster strong foreign relations, and made efforts to implement rudimentary economic systems. In the year 3,000 ASC, the Republic collapsed, and was absorbed into the Confederacy of Gralus.
Gralun Passas (3184 ASC - 3319 ASC)
Nearly two centuries after the fall of the Republic, Passas was annexed into the newly formed Confederacy of Gralus. Again, little is known about this period of Passasian history except that it was marked by protests, sometimes violent, against Gralun rule. Certain records indicate that at one point, Passasian naval vessels refused to fly the Gralun flag, much to the dismay of Gralun governors. Records indicate that the presence of the Confederacy was short lived due to wide spread, frequent protests and rebellions.
The Pirate States / Craitish Passas (3534 ASC - 3634 ASC)
In the centuries following the collapse of Gralun rule in Passas, the the former Republic descended into a state of feudalism. The cities of the west, by this time, had fallen into utter disrepair and chaos while the cities of Newvillage and South City fell under the authority of two ruthless pirates, who's names have been lost to history. When these pirate kings died, so to did their kingdoms. The nation was absrobed by Craitland for a handful of years before the Craitish, like the Graluns, abandoned their investment in the region after prolonged periods of protest and rebellion.
Collapse (3634 ASC - 3879 ASC)
With the decision by the Craitish government to cut its losses, Passas was left in a state of limbo. The cities of the south, like their counterparts in the west, fell into disrepair and ruin. The people largely returned to the countryside where they developed the agrarian communities which would later lead to the establishment of the Free Societies.
Zidado Kingdom (3879 ASC - 4083 ASC)
In 3879 ASC, a certain tribal leader named himself ruler of a new Passasian nation. He established Zidado West as the nation's capital and built a grand palace which now lies in ruin in the western part of the city. Unfortunately, construction of this palace ultimately bankrupted the nation, and it collapsed almost as soon as it appeared.
Hammish Passas (4140 ASC - Present)
Almost three hundred years after the fall of the Zidado Kingdom, Passas was absorbed into the Hammish Commonwealth, where it remains to this day. Half a century later, in 4199 ASC, the Kingdom of Hamland agreed to the establishment of the Free Socieities of Passas, after disagreements between the peoples of Passas and the Hammish government over certain issues including the use of hallucinogenic drugs.
Kingdom of Passas (4870 ASC - 5122)
During the era of the Kingdom of Passas, the nation enjoyed greater stability than at any other point in its history, until this point. Beginning in 4847, with the conquest of Pallisica by King Lucien I,this period is known for unprecedented economic and industrial growth. The Passasian Economic Model was developed during the reign of King Lucien III, who established a national bank in the year 5074. During this period a representative legislative body was established for the first time in over 1,000 years. Headed by President [[[Duke Sinclair]], the Passasian Regional Government passed legislation which improved Passas's economic power and influence.
This period of Passasian history saw the birth of the city of Nuncrest. This new city served to unify the nation's ancient autonomous regions.
Second Republic of Passas (~5119 - Present)
It is unclear whether the Second Republic of Passas came into existence in 5119 ASC, when the Central Bank of Passas was absorbed into the Hammish Ministry of Coin, or 4122 ASC, when Queen Mina announced her abdication in an interview with The Daily Pallisican. Some scholars even point to August 15, 5123 as the date of the establishment of the Second Republic, for the reason being that on that date the Passasian Regional Government announced that it would opt out of all foreign markets, in a move which set the tone for the nation's future economic policy.
Of the eight eras of Passasian history,the Second Republic is by far the most well documented. This period has seen, among other things, the rise of Pallisican Imperialist political philosophy. The Hammish city of Bel Air was annexed into Passas in 5131 ASC following the establishment of the Commonwealth of Hamland. The Passasian economy has enjoyed greater stability than at any other point in the nation's history.
Passas is located in Southwestern Keltia. It is the Southernmost province of Central Hamland, and it borders Alexandria Santa Gertrudis to the North. Passas is primarily a tropical grassland, though it features sparse woodlands in certain areas including the Rodina Valley. The nation's western region is hilly, and lightly forested.
Zidado Societies Zibert Societies Zimia Society Carol Stream Society
Passas is a small, semi-sovereign theocratic republic. The Passasian Regional Government maintains legislative authority. The President of the PRG is Chief Executive, meaning that he/she holds the authority to dissolve both the Temple and Secular courts, as well as implement, or veto legislation passed by the Passasian Regional Government.
Today, the aristocracy is at the center of the nation's social and political hierarchy. Cities are conceptualized as royal households, reflecting tastes of local business leaders, as well as the Duke of Northman and the Duchess of Zidado West. The Duke and Duchess have the power to designate and allocate all land in the province.
The Passasian Regional Government (PRG) serves as the nation's legislative body. Composed of three representatives from each city, it has the authority to pass laws, to declare war, and to elect a "Duke," or President, who acts as the official spokesman for the PRG, who presides over legislative gatherings, and who's responsibility it is to maintain the nation's credit.
Judicial power is held by the Temple and Secular courts. The Temple Courts enforce laws which pertain to moral turpitude, such as indiscretion, insubordination, and heresy, whereas civil and criminal law fall within the domain of the the Secular Court. Secular court adjudicates cases which Temple Court cannot, and has appellate jurisdiction over Temple Court. The Duke of Northman and the Duchess of Zidado West are the chief arbiters of the Temple and Secular Courts, though they do not appoint judges.
Courts are comprised of panels featuring judges, state officials, and temple officials. The legal system of Passas is inquisitorial. Passas' legal system is renowned for the role of it's judges in developing evidence, as well as the requirement of defendant's testimony, even when such testimony is self-incriminating. Lawsuits are less common in the Second Republic than in the Kingdom. Heads of household sue on behalf of families.
All citizens of the Second Republic are entitled to the nation's lands, though permission to use the land must be obtained from the Duke of Northman or the Duchess of Zidado West. Citizens who are denied use of the land may issue appeals through the nation's Secular Court.
All people born in Passas are natural citizens. Rights and Privileges of citizenry include the right to elect representatives, protection by the state police, and legal incentives such as the right to representation in the court of law, and the ability to earn parole. Responsibilities include two years of compulsory military service for men, and for women: a year of service to the nation's schools.
The Passasian military is a hodgepodge of outdated units and weapons, which reflects the country's long poverty. Suffice to say, the technology utilized by the Passasian armies. is in no way shape or form, capable of contending with the advanced technologies of other nations on Micras. Nowadays, the nation's military is used more for sport than anything else, since Passas has not faced any real threat of war for many centuries.
The nation's entire standing army consists of only about 100,000 units divided up into nine armies, divided amongst the nine cities. These armies compete for cash prizes in a tournament which occurs every one hundred years, in which the armies are pitted against one another in very real, very bloody battles across the country, known as the Passasian War League. These War League is a favorite spectacle for many Passasians, and many young men vie to take part in it. Though the War League has long been the subject of criticism and debate, it remains a proud Pallisican tradition.
Each army consists of between 10,000 and 25,000 soldiers, with unit types varying at the discretion of commanders and the provincial governors. In general, infantry is the favorite unit type, with around 50,000 men filling the ranks between the four armies. Cavalry units are less popular, though on certain years they tend to be more or less in vogue. Currently, there are around 34,000 cavalry units between the armies. Siege units are hardly utilized, with only around 24,000 between the armies. Aircraft and armored infantry are forbidden under the current rules of the war games.
The War League, which occurs every one hundred Summers, lasts for two months, or until a winner has been determined. In order to prevent the war games from spilling over into actual, full scale wars, a list of ancient rules are strictly enforced by the tournament's judges, who are usually appointed by the king. This list of rules is as follows.
I. Conduct of Armed Forces (a) Surprise attacks are illegal (b) Torture is prohibited (c) Mutilation of dead bodies is prohibited (d) Boasting is discouraged (e) Chemical/biological warfare is prohibited (f) Unnecessary force/weaponry is discouraged (g) Surrendering forces aren't fought or refused. (h) Retreating forces are not chased. (i) Severe punishment for terrorism (death) (j) Do not betray or misappropriate any part of the booty (k) Do not practice treachery or mutilation (l) Do not uproot or burn pine or cut down fruitful trees (m) Do not slaughter a sheep or a cow or a camel, except for food (n) You will meet people who have set themselves apart in hermitages; leave them to accomplish the purpose for which they have done this. (o) It is forbidden to cut off enemies' water supply. (p) Soldiers must enlist of their own will (q) Only debt free adult males (>16 y.o.) allowed to enlist.
II. Civilian Areas (a) Killing of non-combatants is prohibited (b) Killing of all combatants is permitted (c) Looting is prohibited (d) Use of civilian facilities without permission is prohibited.
-Negotiations (a) Leaders are not required to negotiate for peace. (b) Negotiations require third party intervention/moderation.
-Prisoners of War (a) Only combatants can be captured (b) Prisoners may be held for ransom (d) Unreleased prisoners can be enslaved. (b) Surrendering forces aren't fought or refused. (e) Retreating forces are not chased. (f) Severe punishment for terrorism (death)
The War League is an old practice, which has gained in importance over the past generation due in large part to the increasing rate of urbanization. As people flock to the cities, the demand increases for winning armies, and the stakes become greater. The commanders of the winning army are invited to dine for one night with the royal families. The army itself receives a large sum of obols from the PRG, which is usually added to their city's reserve. The soldiers themselves are revered as heroes, and often accumulate large sums of personal wealth via sponsorships and tributes. Many people gamble on battles, and even venture out into the country-side to follow armies on their campaign. Suffice to say, the League's games are eagerly anticipated, and those who live to see them are considered highly privileged.
When the Republic of Passas collapsed in the year 3000 ASC, it's central bank collapsed with it. For the succeeding 1,700 years, no such centralized financial institution would be established. Despite being absorbed into a handful of different nations, the Passasian economy would dwindle and revert to a primitive state from which it would not improve until the year 5074 ASC, when the newly established Passasian Regional Government voted in favor of establishing a central bank based on the Standardized Currency and Unified Economy.
Today, with significant investments in the Hammish stock exchange (HAM50), the Passasian Regional Government is among the ten wealthiest traders on the Commonwealth Exchange. According to the nation's most recent National Evaluation Summary however, the PRG accounts for less than a third of the nation's total economy. Cities, and private entities account for 70% of the nation's economy. One percent of the nation's value is unaccounted for. For details on the structure of the Passasian economy, refer to the page on the Passasian Economic Model.
The Second Republic is, as of 5224 ASC, experiencing a 1.1% rate of urbanization. The nation's urban population constitutes 83% of the nation's total population. Life expectancy is 76 years. Fertility rate is 2.1 children/family, and the gender ratio of males to females is 1.13. Literacy rate is 93%.
A typical Passasian family consists of a mother, father, and two to four children, all living in the same household with one two to other families, usually comprised of the father's brother or sister, their spouse, and children. Villages and cities usually develop around particular family and ethnic groups.
Formal rites of passage occur at birth, transition into adulthood, marriage, and death. The most significant rites of passage are those of transition into adulthood, and death. Initiation rites for boys, which occur every ten years, involve prolonged periods of isolation from the community, during which time such knowledge and skills are taught as farming techniques, methods of building homes, craft specialties, songs and dances, and rudimentary history of the culture and country, as well as how to behave with other adults and elders. Social messages are reinforced by beatings, physical mutilation such as circumcision and ritualistic scarring. These initiation rites also include vision quests, in which initiates are led to remote wilderness locations, where they ingest powerful hallucinogenic drinks in an attempt to seek guidance and counsel from the divines. Initiation rites for girls are much less pronounced, and yet involve many of the same lessons as are taught to boys during their rigorous rites, but primarily pertain to the role of women in the context of community.
Traditionally, the customs of childbirth have placed the brunt of the burden unto the mother alone. For centuries, expectant mothers have born children entirely on their own, in isolated places in the wilderness, with little to no aid. In contrast, today's expectant mothers generally form social groups in which they seek the counsel of notable figures of Passasian culture, heroes and teachers, scribes and leaders, and venture together into the wilderness where they help one another to find sacred birthing places, usually places such as streams or rivers, or rocky outcrops where it is believed that the newborn child can view genuine beauty upon its entry into the world. Newborn children receive little recognition or admiration in their respective communities, for it is believed that to adore a newborn would instill it with a dangerous sense of pride.
At eight years old, boys are handed from their mothers to their fathers for disciplined training, and preparation for the rigorous initiation rites which occur two years later (at which point they're considered adults). Girls are raised and educated by their grandmothers, who are revered with great dignity. Children younger than eight years old are typically dressed in light, soft colors such as pale blue and pink. Children eight to ten years of age are dressed in brighter variations of the same colors, and tend to adorn the color green which signifies growth and learning. Young adults, aged ten to fifteen are dressed in darker variations of red and blue and green, and from fifteen until old age, they adopt the colors of their respective classes and industries.
Customs surrounding death include the summoning of the eldest son of the deceased to the death bed, where he is expected to symbolically inhale the last breath of his parent. Public processions carry the deceased on a wooden platform, to the tomb or pyre, where the body is cremated. Participants of the procession where death masks, representing ancestors and notable heroes of Passas, and processions usually feature mimes, dancers, and fire breathers. Nine days after the day of procession, the home of the deceased is swept, and the dust is dumped over the tomb. After this cleansing ritual, the dead are mostly ignored, and forgotten. In Passas it is viewed us unwise to linger on thoughts of the dead.
Mocked throughout the region for their local delicacies, the people of Passas consume a diet which reflects frugality and agricultural hardship, and which specializes in the use of grain, various oils, and wine. A typical day in the life of a citizen consists of four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner, and after-dinner (lunch-dinner). Breakfast is observed around sunrise, lunch--shortly before noon, dinner takes place in the mid-afternoon, and after-dinner is observed in the evening, usually after sunset.
Barley cereal, consumed with relish, is a staple of a Passasian breakfast. Passasian breakfast blend is a special recipe, consisting of cabbage, onions, lentils, sweet peas, chickpeas, broad beans, with a dash of honey. White wine is a common drink consumed with breakfast, even amongst young children. Lunch most often features a combination of barley broth, fruit (pomegranates, figs, grapes), and a drink of spring-water. Dinner in Passas usually features a light quantity of stew (black broth), as well as cheese and red-wine. After-dinner is the smallest of the meals, featuring a combination of cereal, eggs, and rose wine. Sweet dumplings are often consumed at this time, sometimes with figs.
Social hierarchies are obviously represented in the country's cuisine. For instance, grilled meat is typically consumed ritualistically by the business class. Salted fowl meat is more often consumed by the middle class, who constitute the majority. Peasantry often raise geese and sheep for personal consumption. Nobles tend to grill their meat, while middle class and peasantry tend more to salt and cook it. The country's poor eat little to no meat but for what they hunt. Instead they consume mostly crops which they manage to produce, and dried fruit. In extreme situations, it's been observed that those in extreme poverty will often eat acorns. Common drink ranges from water (spring water is universally preferred) to wine (rose, red, and white). A local drink, known as Wubalash consists of barley gruel mixed with various herbs and spices. The consumption of milk, and the use of butter is seen as barbaric.
Formal meals are notable for the elevation of seats and tables above the floor, as they're always several inches taller. In addition, cutlery is used at formal dinners, whereas for non-formal dinners cutlery is never used. Wine consumed at formal dinners is typically said to be of higher quality due to it usually being cut with spring water from very specific locales. Such wine is sweetened usually sweetened by herbs such as thyme and penny roll.
Tables at which meals are eaten are usually round with legs shaped like animal legs. No place of honor is typically observed unless the occasion features royalty or business leaders, in which case their seats are slightly higher than the rest. Men and women eat separately, first men, then women. Boys eat with their fathers, girls with mothers. Servants eat on their own, separate from masters, unless by special appointment.
In physical appearance, the people of Passas are distinct amongst the tribes of of Hamland. The Passasian people are readily identified by a mesomporphic, powerful build, and are more prone to build muscle than fat. The vertical height of the typical Passasian cranium is high, and the wide-open eyes are set near to a large, concave nose. Dark brown eyes are most predominate, while lighter brown eyes, even hazel, are much less common. The faces of the people of Passas tend to be orthoganic, with wide chins and broad (not bulbous) foreheads. Brown, to black hair is common, with very rare instances of blonde or red. In addition to all of this, Passasians are renowned for their forward facing ears.
The Passasian standard of beauty for people maintains that less fat is more attractive, while being overly skinny is a sign of ill-health. That is to say that more muscular individuals are more beautiful than individuals who are fat, or skinny. In the same way, lighter colored hair is viewed as favorable, and in an artistic, poetic sense, it is said to harken to the country's golden sky. Wider faces, also are more attractive than narrower, larger noses are favorable to smaller ones, darker eyes are preferred over lighter, and taller individuals are more prone to procreate than shorter, as are those with lighter skin, than are those with darker pigmentation. Large, forward facing ears are regarded as very beautiful.
Fashion in Passas has changed very little since the era of King Lucien III. Morning attire for the women of Passas involves a simple, soft, muslin gown, which is worn from the early hours after sunrise, to shortly before noon. Afternoon, the simple muslin gowns are replaced by extravagant, velvet dresses, adorned with lace, ribbon, and net. These evening dresses are often short-sleeved and low cut, as opposed to the long sleeve, formal gowns worn earlier in the day. White gloves are usually worn with evening dresses, which might be accented with all manner of exaggerated effects, such as bustles, panniers, and crinolines. Particular colors are used to distinguish between the various age-groups of women. Periwinkle blue, pink, and lilac are typically indicative of young age, and are often worn by women seeking courtship and marriage, whereas older women tend to prefer much more harsh colors, such as purple, black, and crimson. The most prominent hairstyle for women consists of masses of curls worn over the forehead and ears, with the long hair in the back, drawn into loose buns (psyche knots). In terms of head wear, bonnets are very common, while more liberal women prefer mob caps.
Men's fashion is much less intricate, typically featuring some variation of the standard, which consists of dull-colored, tight breeches, heavy, high-waited wait coats over linen shirts worn with cravats, and hessian boots, as well as a top hat. Men's hairstyles tend to feature short curls, with long sideburns or muton chops. Hair wax is all the rage amongst the men of Passas.
Passasian fabrics are almost always made of cotton, wool, linen, hemp, tafetta, brocade, velvet, stamped velvet, or muslin.
When traveling in Passas, individuals are advised to spend as little time alone as possible, as individuals who are alone are perceived by Passasians as suspicious and antisocial. To be seen doing nearly anything alone, especially outside of one's home, at night, or in the hottest parts of the scorching summer days, is very likely to rouse high suspicion to the extent that most Passasians would summon the police to inquire.
When greeting others, raising the head instead of bowing is seen as a blatant, severe insult. Likewise, not acknowledging the greeting of another person is somewhat rude, though not nearly to the extent of raising one's head.
When meeting for the first time, people are introduced in relation to their respective fathers, and grandfathers, and in some instances, primarily for those without a notable lineage, are introduced in relation to place of origin. When introducing several people, eldest male is always introduced first, followed by younger men, followed by older women, followed by younger women, and then children. If there is a title of nobility, then it is stated at first meeting, in addition to the reference to father and grandfather, or place of origin, but such things are very rarely referenced once people have become acquainted.
When visiting or when hosting guests, It is generally impolite to ask about work, or to discuss it in public, regardless of what work entails, in any setting aside from work. This stems from the widely held view that work is best left with work, at work, whereas time spent not working should be precisely that. Politics are not mentioned unless by the host.
It is not unusual for guests to request light snacks, or fresh water, or to partake in a meal with the host while visiting. The host is not likely to offer anything, but is expected to provide for whatever the guests might request, within certain limits (pending the relationship between host and guests). Again, the nature of a visit is determined by the guests, and not by the host. A host who is less able/willing to provide for requests, is more likely to be shunned by friends/family/future guests. Its impolite for a guest to be too forward with their requests, or to make requests very soon after arriving (for anything but water, which is freely requested/granted). So, a guest might immediately ask their host for water at arrival, whereas a request for bread or wine, or smoke, would be more impolite, at least right away.
Racism is rampant in Passas. Non Passasians are advised not to travel without informing the proper authorities of their destination and expected arrival time.