Craitland

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Kingdom of Craitland (en)
Kingdóm ó Cräiteland (cr)
Flag of Craitland
Flag
Coat of Arms of Craitland
Coat of Arms
Motto: Vycasio yhn honór
Anthem: Vycasio yhn Honór
Location of Craitland
Map versions 9.0.0–
Capital Cherry Trees
Largest city Osĵätoņ, Hänävissen-ó-Cräiteland
Official language(s) Craitish, English
Official religion(s) None official;
Craitish paganism granted cultural protection
Demonym Crait
 - Adjective Craitish
Government Constitutional monarchy
 - King Craitman H. Pellegrino
 - Prime Minister
 - Legislature Parliament of Craitland
Establishment 12 December 2002
 - Ranked 8th
Area
 - Ranked 11th
Population 17,000,000
 - Active 1–4
 - Ranked
Currency Cräite (CCR)
Abbreviation CRA
National website Official website
National forum Official forum
National animal Stag
National food Hjoberry
National drink Malem
National tree Pelle rose

Craitland (Craitish: Cräiteland) is a micronation located on The Fifth Isle, off the north-westerly coast of the continent of Apollonia.

Officially the Kingdom of Craitland (Craitish: Kingdóm ó Cräiteland), the nation has existed since late 2002 and has been involved in the Micras Sector since mid-2006.

History

Main article: History of Craitland

Craitland's history can be observed as having two separate periods, being distinguished as time before and time following the nation's claiming on Micras. During the former period, the nation's history and development primarily revolved around real-world activities, whilst since joining Micras, Craitland has further embraced a more fantastic culture set within in-character story lines and simulation.

Foundation and early years

The history of Craitland can be traced back to 2002, when the nation was established by King Craitman. That year, albeit at an unknown time, a concept map was created by Craitman for an island named Cräiteland. Following developments, the concept was broadened into its own nation before being declared independent on December 12, with Craitman establishing his parental home as the nation's embassy on Earth. Following its independence declaration, Craitland spent its earlier years being utilised primarily as a means of generating sports results and for Craitman's personal interactions with acquaintances.

Craitland's first ties to online micronationalism came through the discussion forums for the nation of Lovely in 2005, following the television series How to Start Your Own Country. Having watched the series, Craitman gained Lovelian citizenship and also attempted unsuccessfully to garner relations between Craitland and Lovely. Shortly afterwards, Craitman's involvement in Lovely halted and so did Craitland's online presence as a result. A year later, in the summer of 2006, Craitman revisited Lovely's forums on impulse and, whilst perusing, discovered mentions of and links to the Micronational Cartography Society. After subsequently visiting the MCS and learning of its purpose and practices, a claim was submitted for Craitland to join Micras in August 2006.

Micras claim and expansion

Craitland's Micrasian claim was accepted by the MCS the same day it was submitted and the nation was established on the Hóm Islands off the eastern coast of Corum; appearing on the organisation's official claimsmap for the first time on version 9.0.0, dated September 6, 2006. In the months following its successful claim on Micras, Craitland's online presence expanded to include an official government website, citizen discussion boards and a website for the CrFA; its national football association. Craitland's first major involvement in the international community came in December 2006, with its national football team's participation in the inaugural FMF World Cup.

In early 2007, Craitland's development focused on publicising most of its details which were previously inaccessible and creating diplomacy with other Micrasian nations, with a number of new citizens also joining the nation. Having joined Micras around the same time, Craitland aligned itself with Passas, Novatainia and Tokidoki and formed the Micro Illuminati; an organisation based around mutual trading and sharing expertise. During this time, Craitland also annexed the nation of Incontinentia, which had been founded a number of years prior by a personal friend of Craitman's. Incontinentia was reëstablished as a trading base on Micras, at the south-western tip of Keltia, and was accepted as Craitland's first expansion on claimsmap version 10.2.0 on March 9. During a period of notable activity and development, Craitland expanded its claims on Micras once again in May 2007, following the demise of the prospective nation of Amoria, of which Craitman was a citizen. The autonomous territory of Zandarijn, which took its name from one of the Amorian states, was established in south-eastern Cibola, and first appeared on claimsmap version 11.0.0a on May 20.

In late 2007, Craitland successfully expanded once more with the foundation of the autonomous New Vaduz in central Keltia. New Vaduz's first appearance on the MCS claimsmap came on November 21 that year, with version 12.5.0.

The dissolution of one of Craitland's allied nations New Brittania led to more land coming under Craitish sovereignty in early 2008. New Brittania's death resulted in a dispersal of its colonial possessions, with the island of New South Vietnam off the south-eastern coast of Keltia being bequeathed to Craitland. New South Vietnam appeared as an autonomous territory of Craitland on claimsmap version 13.2.1 on February 29 for the first time and remained under Craitish administration until August 30 the same year, when it was gifted back to a newly-revived Britannic Empire as featured on claimsmap version 13.5.5. The following week, Craitland's largest expansion of territory was accepted by the MCS, with the nation's entire mainland being relocated from the Hóm Islands to The Fifth Isle in the very north of Micras, north-west of Apollonia.

The Fifth Isle and recent history

Craitland successfully claimed The Fifth Isle in September 2008, initiating a new period of the nation's history. The nation's capital was relocated from the Hóm Islands to The Fifth Isle in the relocation, with the former Cherry Trees being renamed to Hóm City. The Fifth Isle first appeared under Craitish control on claimsmap version 13.6.0 on September 6. Craitland's territory remained relatively stable in the months following the relocation of its mainland up until mid-2009, when long-term allies Passas were annexed as a means of denying its demise. Situated in western Keltia, Passas became an autonomous territory in June that year, appearing on the June 6-dated 13.8.9 version of the claimsmap, and remained administered by Craitland for approximately six weeks before being dissolved prior to version 13.9.4 on July 18.

Early 2010 witnessed Craitland's first reduction of land, with the agreement of the secession of Enthdover in the north of the nation. Founded by a combination of former citizens of Treesia and Greenuk, both of which had claimed The Fifth Isle before Craitland, residing in the forests in the region, Enthdover's independence was recognised by the MCS on January 24, 2010's claimsmap version 14.0.7. Enthdover's nationhood existed for half a year before being declared dead and its land being ceded back to Craitish control, as appeared on version 14.2.2 on August 1 the same year.

Despite Enthdover's dissolution, a percentage of its former populace maintained its religious community and, after notable international pilgrimages, another independent state was founded on its former lands; Castrum Nazarene. This new nation agreed amicable secession from Craitland in early 2011, being accepted by the MCS for claimsmap version 14.4.0, dated February 13, and established itself as the authority over its religion's church across Micras. At the same time that Craitland ceded the land administered by Castrum Nazarene, the nation also reduced some of its territorial claims elsewhere, with the Hóm Islands being vacated and the most southerly portion of Zandarijn being unclaimed.

Castrum Nazarene existed as an enclave within Craitland for over a year, before being dissolved in April 2012, with its land once again being returned to Craitland, as recognised by the MCS on April 8, 2012 with claimsmap version 14.7.9. Either side of this restoration of land to Craitland, the nation underwent significant periods of consistency in regard to claims and development, with King Craitman's marriage to Victoria's Princess Anika in June 2011 - which took place in Castrum Nazarene's Cathedral of our Lady of the Fifth Isle - being its most noteworthy activity.

Craitland's most substantial change since Castrum Nazarene's expiration came in late 2013 when the nation of Hurmu, with which Craitland held cultural affinity, was declared dead. Craitland soon established the territory of Lakkvia in the region of the Holy Lakes in Lyrica to allow refuge for any displaced Hurmudans, with the Craitish claims on the land being acknowledged by the MCS in November 24's 15.2.8 version of the claimsmap.

The following year, Craitland experienced a considerable loss with the deletion of its online discussion forums, which it had used continuously for almost eight years. Many documents, details, conversations and news reports were lost during this event, unable to be retrieved. Prior to the forums' eradication, Craitland had passed a landmark measure to establish the nation's first military forces. The loss prompted King Craitman to establish an occupancy on the Bastion Union, a preëxisting forum shared by a number of closely-aligned independent nations, to act as Craitland's primary online presence, which occurred on October 16, 2014. Despite such a detrimental happening, 2014 also saw Craitland bid successfully to host the tenth edition of the FMF World Cup the following summer, giving the nation the opportunity to showcase itself via one of Micras' most popular events.

The flag of the Union of States around the Sovereign Oceans; Craitland's most recent supranational alliance.

In its attachment to the Bastion Union forum, Craitland established closer diplomatic ties with the nation of Talenore, a small city-state based on an island near south-west Keltia, bordering the Captive Sea. Talenore was annexed by Craitland after announcing its death, and was reëstablished as a protectorate shortly afterwards. Talenore's first appearance on Micras as such was with the MCS's claimsmap version 15.7.4, dated March 27, 2016. In a relatively quiet period of Craitland's history, Talenore remained a protectorate for almost a year, with no major developments occurring, before announcing its independence in early 2017. Talenore officially left Craitish rule on March 5, being portrayed as sovereign on the 15.9.1 claimsmap version.

Around the same time as Talenore's independence declaration, Craitland became a founding member of the USSO; a primarily military-based union of nations created as a response to the ongoing Hammish Civil War. The organisation's other founding members were Jingdao, with whom Craitland had close ties during the Batavian era of its history, Passio-Corum, the nation-state of the Passasian people whose homeland of Passas was once under Craitish rule, Gerenia, and Xang Muang. While the organisation's foundation received mix responses from the greater Micrasian community, due in most part to Jingdao's role in its recent confrontation with Shireroth, Craitland's involvement stemmed from a desire to provide humanitarian aid to the affected peoples of Hamland by the most constructive means, with the USSO arguably compensating for a recent lack of Craitish international coöperation since the demise of the MI the previous year.

Geography

Craitland's terrain.
  Lowland areas
  Highland areas
  Mountain ranges
Craitland's climate.
  Subpolar oceanic climate
  Subarctic climate

Being situated on The Fifth Isle and its surrounding islands, Craitland's mainland borders no other independent nations on Micras. The land is situated in the northern hemisphere of the planet, to the north-west of the continent of Apollonia. Bordering Craitland to the east and north is the Northern Sea, with the island nation of Réunion to the east, to the west the Halberd Strait separating it from Shireroth, and to the south Bruges Bay, which creates a channel to Gotzborg's mainland and the Natopian autonomous territory of Arboria. Further north still is the polar ice cap. Craitland lies approximately between latitudes 52° and 70°N, and longitudes 70° and 90°W.

The majority of Craitland's coastal zones and further inland are low-lying, while highlands dominate the centre of the island with a mountain range to the north-east. The highest point in Craitland, Hänävissen, is situated in this range.

Due to its northerly location, and surrounding by ocean, Craitland's climate is overall a cool and wet one. The Köppen classification of climate considers most of the nation to have a subpolar oceanic climate, while some regions along the nation's eastern coast have been classified under a subarctic climate.

Administrative divisions

For administrative purposes, Craitland is organised into two tiers of subdivisions; provinces and counties. There are other informal regions within the nation but these are either traditional and serve no modern purpose, or are utilised for non-governmental organisations and services.

Provinces

Provinces are the principal subdivisions in Craitland. While the provinces' primary role is for sub-national legislature, they are also an indication of demarcation of cultural differences between the people of Craitland. There are six in total:

Counties

Main article: Counties of Craitland

The provinces are further divided into counties, of which there are 32 in total. Despite having no separate administrative jurisdictions, the counties' chief purpose is for the election of 33 of the 233 members of the Craitish parliament via constituencies. However, these subdivisions are utilised most frequently for postal service designation, local sports organisation and civil registration.

Territories

Craitland currently holds sovereignty over five autonomous territories across Micras, and previously claimed two others at different times in its history.

Flag Territory Capital Location Craitish sovereignty
Incontinentia Incontinentia Incontinentia City South-west Keltia March 2007
Lakkvia Lakkvia Vesüha Northern Lyrica November 2013
New Vaduz New Vaduz New Vaduz Central Keltia November 2007
Zandarijn Zandarijn Hamstadt South-east Cibola May 2007

Former territories

Flag Territory Capital Location Craitish sovereignty
New South Vietnam New South Vietnam New Saigon South-east Keltia February–August 2008
Passas Passas South City South-west Keltia June–July 2009
Talenore Talenore Talenore City Captive Sea, Keltia March 2016–March 2017

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Craitland

Craitland is a unitary constitutional monarchy. King Craitman is its head of state.

King

Main article: King of Craitland

The head of state of Craitland is its king, which is currently, since the nation's foundation, Craitman. The king theoretically holds absolute power over Craitland, maintaining the right to overrule parliament under certain conditions, but in practice acts in formality when approving laws and partaking in stately duties.

Government

The executive government of Craitland is composed of members from the party or coalition with majority control over parliament.

Parliament

Craitland's parliament comprises a unicameral legislature of 233 seats. Using the mixed-member proportional representation system of voting, members of parliament are chosen via public polling, with 33 being chosen through the electoral constituencies of the nation's counties and the remaining 200 being divided by proportional representation from the overall popular vote.

Political parties

There are five major political parties in Craitland, based on prior election performance and governmental history. Smaller and single-issue parties are also common, but fail to garner a significant percentage of votes; similarly with independents in their respective seats. The five largest parties and their political alignments are as follows:

Name Ideology Political position
  Liberal-Centre Alliance Classical liberalism, agrarianism Centre
  National Party Nationalism, protectionism Right-wing
  Social Democrats Social democracy, multiculturalism Centre-left
  Solidarity Democratic socialism, environmentalism Left-wing
  United Conservatives Conservatism, federalism Centre-right

Foreign relations

Despite its small population, Craitland has a notably strong presence internationally, in part due to King Craitman's involvement in a number of Micraswide organisations and projects. Craitland is generally viewed favourably by most other nations' governments and has yet to partake in any diplomatic conflicts.

Craitish government policy is to formally recognise any members of the MCS once their application has been accepted, although it is also commonplace for treaties of mutual recognition to be signed between Craitland and others, even if both already officially recognise one another. In recent years, Craitland's closest diplomatic ties have been with Hamland, Tellia and Mercury. Currently, besides recognition treaties, Craitland also has agreements with Shireroth and Stormark pertaining to certain aspects of governance and land sovereignty.

Craitland was formerly a founding member of the Micras Initiative; previously known as the Micro Illuminati. As such, the nation maintained close diplomatic ties with Gralus - and its founding states Novatainia and Toketi - Passas, prior to its ceding of independence, Beaugium, and Batavia. Despite the MI's dormancy in its later years, Craitland remained closely aligned to these nations up until their respective expiry. The MI failed to continue existing upon the death of Toketi in early 2016; leaving Craitland as the only existing member to end the organisation.

Military

Craitland's military is a relatively new aspect of the nation. Being traditionally pacifistic, Craitland primarily relies on its reputable diplomacy and had no standing armed forces until 2012, when the Craitish Defence Force was established. Craitland's military is strictly reserved for the domestic defence of the nation, and so has yet to be involved in any foreign offences or recwars.

The Craitish Defence Force is divided into three branches; its army, air force and navy. Craitland's military expenditure is low, even for its population per capita.

Economy

The Fifth Isle Imports Company plays a major part in the export of Craitish goods to Shireroth.

Craitland runs a mixed economy, wherein the majority of public and welfare services are state-run, with free markets dominating the remaining sectors. A number of state-owned enterprises exist, primarily in entertainment, where companies are funded by the Craitish government with the aim of creating financial profit.

The Craitish Cräite is the official currency of Craitland.

Despite limited natural resources, Craitland exports a number of local goods across Micras, primarily to Shireroth across the Halberd Strait. The endemic hjoberry and its derivative alcoholic drink malem are popular exported foodstuffs in the Goldshire and Lichbrook regions of Shireroth. Craitland also has a successful spice industry, with local flavours being exported to a number of nations. Tourism also comprises a sizeable percentage of Craitland's economic income, with many visitors each year being drawn to the nation's culture, scenery and activity range availability.

Demographics

Official estimates put the population of Craitland at around a figure of 17,000,000. Approximately 60% of the nation's population lives in urban areas, with 40% being rural. Craitland's population density is low overall, with particular concentration in coastal areas. Women comprise around 52%, and men 48%, of the population. There is a low birth rate and Craitland's population growth is subsequently also very low.

Ethnic groups

Craitland is vastly homogeneous, with almost 99% of its population being of Caucasian descent. The remaining 1% mainly consists of an immigrant Mongoloid community from Incontinentia, with a mixed Negroid population from varying regions on Micras. Of the sizeable Caucasian populace, an overall 97% are ethnic Craits, while the nation's largest percentages of immigrants are also Caucasians, such as those from Hamland and Passas. The Kej ethnic group native to the north-west of Craitland make-up over 0.5% of the total population.

Language

Craitland's official languages are Craitish and English. Craitish is a Germanic conlang closely related to English, originating in Craitland, and is the primary medium of teaching and broadcasting in the nation. English's official standing in Craitland is for its usage as a lingua franca in diplomatic relations and international correspondence.

Other minority languages which see usage in Craitland are those which are official in the nation's oldest territories; Dutch from Zandarijn, German from New Vaduz and Incontinentia's native Incontinentian. Kej Craitish is the dialect of Craitish spoken by the Kej peoples of northern Craitland, which has been recognised as a regional language in the province of Metzreäiĵer.

Foreign language study is compulsory in Craitland up until age 16, with many schools offering a selection of differing options, while language study courses in further education are highly popular choices.

Religion

Craitland is an explicitly secular nation. However, Craitish paganism (Craitish: Pägan) holds a status of cultural protection due to its indigenous existence. Craitish paganism is Craitland's largest religious denomination, with around 35% of the population's acknowledged adherence; primarily in the south and east of the nation, while the majority of the population identifies as irreligious. Christianity has a minority following in more northerly communities; a remnant of Castrum Nazarene's influence on the region, with Islam being common in immigrant circles. The largest settlements in the nation are also likely to have at least one place of worship for other notable Micrasian religions, such as Soloralism, Cedrism and Catologism, though their following constitutes a negligible percentage of the nation's population.

Education

The University of Craitland oversees all degree-awarding establishments in Craitland.

Education is compulsory in Craitland up until age 18. Prior to age six, children are reserved places in preschool for the preceding three years before beginning full-time schooling.

Compulsory education is divided into two stages; primary and secondary. Primary education lasts for six years between ages six and twelve, while secondary education lasts between ages twelve and 18, also for six years. There are two tiers of testing in secondary education, with "standard" tests at the age of 16, and "higher" level testing at age 18 in the final year. Up to "standard" level, studying the full range of academic subjects is required, with tests being taken on no less than eight courses, with "higher" courses normally being limited to four per student with a minimum of two courses' tests to be taken. While timetables up to "standard" level are full-time, "higher" years' classes are frequently part-time to allow students' exploration of vocational possibilities. Craitland's secondary education tier has previously been lauded for its topic coverage, availability of courses - with many schools focusing on practical subjects such as agriculture and engineering - freedom in students' selection of testing, and its design to help students reach their highest potential.

Following the completion of compulsory education, students have the opportunity to attend university for three- or four-year Bachelor's courses as well as further postgraduate study. All universities in Craitland come under the jurisdiction of the University of Craitland, which is the nation's ultimate degree-awarding authority, while each establishment is run independently, being permitted its own course availability, entrance requirements and funding structures. Tuition costs may be covered directly by the student, via interest-free loans, or through scholarships awarded by the university.

Culture

Craitish culture is inadvertently heavily influenced by that of England, due to its shared early history and developments, such as the Craitish language's relationship with English. Craitland's cultural inspiration is the Faroe Islands, and their culture shares many similarities with aspects of Craitish society. Having a relatively homogeneous population, Craitish culture has only witnessed minimal impact from immigration and is generally uniform across the nation's entirety. Craitish societal culture is based around a shared belief of tolerance and egalitarianism, and local communities are often tightly-knit with concern for their members' welfare.

Arts, entertainment and media

Craitland has a tradition of folklore, primarily related to England's and Scandinavia's, and many of its art forms are influenced by certain stories and legends. Craitish art generally takes inspiration from simplicity, with natural landscapes a common feature among popular painters and wood carving a frequent medium for sculptors.

Music in Craitland is varied in genre, but tends to favour the use of non-electrical instruments and natural vocals. Folk music is highly popular in both popular charts and live performances, with instruments such as the fiddle, smallpipes and fife commonplace, regularly accompanied by rudimentary percussion instruments. Craitland is also a regular participant in the Microvision Song Contest, where it consistently performs well with previous victories to its name.

Broadcast entertainment in Craitland covers a variety of media, with both television and radio prevalent as a means of socialising in private. Craitland's media industry share is split between state-run enterprises and independent corporations, such as television stations CrTV and VVision, respectively. The majority of televised broadcasting is done on a nationwide scale, with certain scheduling reserved for regional programming, while local radio stations outnumber the amount of national channels due to their popularity as community forums.

While newspaper readership remains at a steady constant, especially for broadsheet publications, the internet has become the Craitish public's most popular resource for news updates and reporting.

Sport

Sport plays a major part in Craitish society, and is often considered an integral part of the Craitish culture and identity. Association football is the largest sport in Craitland in terms of registered players, overall expenditure, public match attendance and professional league structure, while ólbescból - a sport of domestic origin - has both more professional and amateur teams affiliated to its organising body. In addition to these, cricket, rugby league, Amorian football and ice hockey are all team sports played to a professional level in Craitland, either with a full domestic league or with franchises playing in Micraswide tournaments. Additionally, Craitish individuals also compete professionally in tennis and motorsport tours across Micras.

Craitland is renowned for its international success in multiple sports, having won world titles in football (FMF World Cup, four times), rugby league (FMRL World Cup, once) and cricket (MCF World T20 Cup, once) with its respective representative national teams.

Football

Association football is the most popular sport in Craitland, and the nation's footballing history and status is well-known internationally. The governing body for the sport in Craitland is the CrFA, which was founded in 2002, not long after the nation's establishment. The CrFA is responsible for the organisation of the Craitish national team as well as the nation's three professional leagues (League 1, League 2 and League 3) and two cup competitions (the King's Cup and Cities' Cup). The CrFA was a founding member of the FMF, Micras' footballing federation, in 2006.

Craitland's national team has historically been one of the strongest in the FMF, and is the most successful side in the FMF World Cup, having won four world titles; double that of any other nation's team. The national team holds a number of records, being one of only two to have participated in every World Cup finals tournament and being the first to compete in two confederations' competitions; the WMFA's Benacia Cup and EMUFA's EMU Championships, having won the latter once. Craitland's high-quality domestic setup also means it has had the capacity to successfully host both the EMU Championships and World Cup in its history.

Craitland's top-flight domestic division is League 1, and is contested on an annual basis between ten clubs. Since its inaugural season in 2003, the league has expanded from originally containing six clubs and has garnered a reputation as one of the most competitive and high-quality on Micras. Craitish clubs have strong international pedigree, with six having appeared in a combined thirteen tournament final matches, of which eight have been victorious. League 1 has notable financial support from the Craitish government, coupled with lucrative sponsorship deals and high fan attendance, meaning that many high-profile footballers have transferred to Craitland to ply their trade in the league. The level of Craitish clubs' involvement in the transfer market can be substantiated by over half of the twenty most expensive transfer fees being made by clubs in League 1.

Craitish football culture is seen as an extension of that of its overall society, with a sense of sportsmanship and a welcoming atmosphere common amongst supporters and stadiums. Craitish tolerance is typified by Freddie Gaärsen, arguably the nation's most famous footballer, who is the national team's captain, highest scorer and most-capped player. Gaärsen has been openly gay since 2013 and, despite a history of homophobia in the sport, has been lauded for his approach to his sexuality and career by a number of international figureheads.

Ólbescból

Despite football's popularity, ólbescból, also occasionally referred to as orbishball, is the official national sport of Craitland. The sport originated in Craitland and the nation is the only one in which the sport is played to a professional level. The CrÓ is the sport's authority and runs the League A and League B Championships for county teams. The All-Craitland Championship is the sport's premier competition, being competed for by teams representing Craitland's provinces and territories, with the recent additions of two independent national teams.

Folk sports

Craitland's sporting culture has led to the unique phenomenon of "folk sports" being played throughout the nation. Folk sports are games generally played in certain locales, at a completely amateur level, with little to no organisation or official equipment. These sports are common across Craitland, with most settlements having their own respective tournaments or events.

Cuisine

Due to its Scandinavian inspiration, the cuisine of Craitland is similarly influenced by that region's food. Traditional Craitish fare includes fish, meat, root vegetables and cheeses. Because of the nation's climate, with harsh winters affecting farming productivity, food preservation techniques are common, meaning dried meats and pickles are staples in the diet of Craits.

The Fifth Isle, on which Craitland is situated, is the endemic home of the hjoberry, which is considered the national fruit. The alcoholic drink malem is produced from fermented hjoberries and is an important part of Craitish society. The south of Craitland also has a tradition of producing ales.